Socio-economic and livelihood strategies of the Ehirovipuka Conservancy, Namibia. select="/dri:document/dri:meta/dri:pageMeta/dri:metadata[@element='title']/node()"/>

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dc.contributor.author Lendelvo, Selma M.
dc.contributor.author Nakanyala, Jesaya
dc.date.accessioned 2015-02-25T12:46:13Z
dc.date.available 2015-02-25T12:46:13Z
dc.date.issued 2012
dc.identifier.citation Lendelvo, S. & Nakanyala, J. (2012). Socio-economic and livelihood strategies of the Ehirovipuka Conservancy, Namibia. Windhoek, Namibia: University of Namibia. en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/11070/1334
dc.description.abstract The Conservancy, a Community-Based Natural Resources Management (CBNRM) approach, implemented in the rural areas in Namibia was identified as the focus of this study. A Conservancy is an organised group of farmers living within a common boundary area and related cultural background, as well as sharing the same resources for their livelihoods (Sullivan, 2002). Namibian rural areas have undergone changes in terms of social structures and the use of the environment. The livelihood strategies of people have been changing over time due to changes in the resources base and accessibility. This case study focuses on the Ehirovipuka communal Conservancy, which is located in the north-western part of the Namibia and directly bordering Etosha National Park. The north-western part is regarded as the richest region for wildlife species in the country. The objective of this study was to examine changes in livelihoods in order to enhance understanding the perception of the community on the linkages between the natural resources base and the livelihood strategies in the area. This study employed both the household questionnaire survey and focused group discussions. A total of 111 households from 10 villages were randomly interviewed for the survey. In addition, six focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted in the two main settlements of the Conservancy, namely, Otjokavare and Onguta. The findings of the study showed that the Conservancy is characterised by a high dependency ratio 100% or 1:1. This ratio is high because the number of the dependent age (50.3%) is almost equal the number of independent age group (49.7%). In addition to this, the Conservancy is dominated by low level of education and a high unemployment rate. Most members of the independent age group (economically active) (60%) also indicated to be neither working nor looking for employment. Also, the majority of the household members have either not attended any formal education (44%) or have not completed primary education (48%). The households from this conservancy are engaged in various livelihood activities. These livelihood activities have been maintained over the years, although some have changed in order of importance. Livestock farming, mainly for own use purposes, emerged as the most important livelihood activity, followed by formal employment and old age pension grants. Most of the income generating livelihood strategies only became important during the 1980s, which suggests the shifting of the rural community to respond to the national cash economy lifestyle. Three factors that maintained the livelihoods activities in the Ehirovipuka Conservancy emerged as access through strong social relations, diversification of livelihood activities and the emergence of the community level support institutions such as the Conservancy. In conclusion, the Conservancy is perceived as community level support that contributes to the improvement of natural resources which most livelihood activities depend on, hence, leading to the resilience of most livelihood activities. The study recommended the following: (i) Although owning large herds of cattle is a cultural practice, there is a need to find ways to address this practice because it may lead to subsequent land degradation in the area, hence affecting the main livelihood activity of the area; (ii) Development of monitoring mechanisms for vegetation resources and landscapes is required to allow community leaders to make informed decisions; (ii) Community members need to practise mechanisms that are important in reducing human wildlife conflict such as herding, kraaling the livestock at night and others known to them as wildlife in their communities will continue to increase due to good management practices put in place by the conservancy; (iv) Social cohesion among conservancy members should be promoted as this could be crucial to reduce vulnerability among poor households; (v) Employment creation through tourism initiatives in the conservancy could help in tackle the need for employment among those economically active members of the community; and (vi) There is a need for further research to understand the implementation of the conservancy activities and its contribution to sustainable development. en_US
dc.description.sponsorship Sponsored by Multidisciplinary Research Centre (MRC), UNAM and Smithsonian Institute. en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher University of Namibia en_US
dc.subject Ehirovipuka communal Conservancy en_US
dc.subject Livelihood strategies en_US
dc.subject Resources base and accessibility. en_US
dc.title Socio-economic and livelihood strategies of the Ehirovipuka Conservancy, Namibia. en_US
dc.type Technical Report en_US


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