Analysis of causes and risk factors associated with maternal deaths in Namibia select="/dri:document/dri:meta/dri:pageMeta/dri:metadata[@element='title']/node()"/>

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dc.contributor.author Mulama, Lihongeni N.
dc.date.accessioned 2015-05-12T17:29:08Z
dc.date.available 2015-05-12T17:29:08Z
dc.date.issued 2015
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/11070/1479
dc.description A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Applied Statistics and Demography en_US
dc.description.abstract Maternal mortality is a major health concern in Namibia as it is the case in most countries. The rate at which women are dying due to pregnancy related causes is high and the cause as well as risk factors are not well explored. The main objective of this research was to identify the causes and risk factors associated with maternal mortality in Namibia and thus the study described the socio-demographic characteristics and three delays that lead to maternal deaths in Namibia. The paper also aims to propose strategies for midwifery practice, in order to prevent maternal deaths in future. Data on health facility based review of maternal records from 13 regions in the country during the period of 2008-2012 was used. This was then complemented by the 2011 Namibia Population and Housing census data. For the health facility data, a case control study design was applied, with a total number of 154 maternal deaths included in the study as cases and 770 women of reproductive ages who fell pregnant during the study period and survived as controls. A logistic regression model was used to assess the risk factors associated with maternal deaths. For the Census data, measures of maternal mortality, such as maternal mortality ratio, maternal mortality rate, lifetime risk of maternal death, and proportion of maternal deaths among women of reproductive age were estimated. Based on the health facility data, of the 154 maternal deaths reviewed, 58.4% were from direct maternal deaths and 41.6% were from indirect maternal deaths. Haemorrhage (37.8%), eclampsia (24.4%) and puerperal sepsis (23.3%) were the leading causes for direct maternal deaths. About 65% of the haemorrhage cases; 64% of the eclampsia cases and 53% of the puerperal sepsis occurred to women who lived in rural areas. The predominant recognizable indirect causes were HIV (45.3%); pneumonia (23.4%) and tuberculosis (17.2%). Maternal deaths are less likely to occur to women living together with their partner than those who are not living together (OR = 0.53). Most women experienced first (51.3%) and third delays (51.9%). Only few women experienced a second delay (12.9%). However it is important to note that some women experienced more than one delay and in some cases all delays were experienced. Using the 2011 Census data, maternal mortality ratio was 547 deaths per 100 000 live births. The highest ratio of 1954 deaths per 100,000 live births is recorded for women in the age group of 45-49 years. Maternal Mortality Ratio is also observed to be high among the teenage mothers between the age group of 15-19 years with an estimate of 421 deaths per 100,000 live births as compared to 318 deaths per 100,000 live births estimated for women aged 20-24 This analysis reinforced previous findings pointing to the fact that haemorrhage and eclampsia are the leading causes of maternal mortality in Namibia and other developing countries. This indicates the need for better obstetric care, particularly for women over thirty years of age. en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.subject Maternal deaths en_US
dc.subject Namibia en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Mothers, Mortality, Statistics
dc.subject.lcsh Maternity nursing, Namibia
dc.subject.lcsh Maternal health services, Namibia
dc.subject.lcsh Mothers, Namibia, Mortality
dc.subject.lcsh Pregnancy, Complications, Nursing
dc.title Analysis of causes and risk factors associated with maternal deaths in Namibia en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US


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