An investigation into gender based frequencies and discrepancies regarding absence without leave in the Grootfontein Military Base 2009-2011 select="/dri:document/dri:meta/dri:pageMeta/dri:metadata[@element='title']/node()"/>

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dc.contributor.author Kwedhi, Lerry T
dc.date.accessioned 2017-04-08T13:16:20Z
dc.date.available 2017-04-08T13:16:20Z
dc.date.issued 2012
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/11070/1993
dc.description A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in Security and Strategic Studies en_US
dc.description.abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the causes of gender-based frequencies and discrepancies regarding Absence without Leave (AWOL) among soldiers in the Grootfontein Military Base, the trends, effects and possible mitigating factors to minimise AWOL frequencies and to come up with recommendations. This study was a case study using both qualitative and quantitative approaches. The techniques used in collecting data were literature, documents survey, and focus group discussions while the questionnaire was the only instrument used. The qualitative data collected from the focus group discussions and questionnaires were gathered, sorted and categorised, while the quantitative data was analysed using excel to assess the AWOL frequency and discrepancies rate among male and female soldiers in the Grootfontein Military Base. Various sources of literature were reviewed and the study was able to link the collected information from the empirical part obtained by means of documents survey, focus group discussions and the questionnaires. The sources of literature review consisted of books, journals, internet resources, relevant Acts and reports. This study established five common types of AWOL which are: frequent AWOL, AWOL on selected days, half day AWOL, late arrival at work and prolonged AWOL. It also established various causes of AWOL frequencies and discrepancies, with the main ones being: difference in population size, NDF as an employment agency, gender discriminations/preferential treatment, alcohol and drug abuse, conceptions about masculinity, poor leadership, lack of motivation, ignorance of the rules, absence of married quarters and poor financial management. The study found the prevalence of AWOL to be higher in male soldiers than in female soldiers, with males making up 99% of the AWOL offenders, while females only contributed 0.1% of 391 AWOL cases reported. The study established that the behaviours of male soldiers are different from that of female soldiers. The study established that females showed higher job commitment and have more financial discipline, while male soldiers do not have the same level of commitment. Male soldiers have higher expectations for promotion, which when not met are turned into AWOL. This is not the case with female soldiers. AWOL frequencies and discrepancies can cause negative effects such as: organizational ineffectiveness, termination of service, loss of income and shortages of manpower which can affect the unit strength in terms of mission readiness or operational preparedness. It also brings about a loss of skilled personnel that are costly to replace. The cost of fuel, daily and subsistence allowances used by the Military Police when searching for AWOLers cannot be excluded in the loss. If this phenomenon is allowed to continue unchallenged, it would have detrimental effects to the force’s professional image, efficiency and fighting capabilities, because males who are the majority in the force are also the most affected by AWOL. This study’s participants suggested mitigating factors to minimise gender-based AWOL frequencies and discrepancies which are of corrective nature and includes: equal treatment irrespective of gender, an adjustment in salary, behavioural change in male soldiers, provision of married quarters, and counselling. The researcher suggested that the NDF should look into corrective approaches rather than concentrating on punitive ones, such as field punishment, fines, demotions and discharged from work. AWOL remains one of the leading offences in the force despite the existence of punitive approaches. Therefore, supervisors at different levels in the NDF and soldiers should put more efforts to tackle AWOL. AWOLers should also make a decision to change, in other words, restructuring of consciousness can only be realised through individual efforts. The following recommendations were suggested: training of commanders at different levels on supervisory skills, improvement on effective communication to allow soldiers to discuss work related and personal problems with their commanders freely, equal treatment irrespective of gender, equal opportunities for promotion, improve working conditions, adjustment of salaries, equality in recruiting, training and posting and behavioural change. The study recommended areas for further research en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher University of Namibia en_US
dc.subject Discrepancies en_US
dc.subject Gender based frequencies en_US
dc.title An investigation into gender based frequencies and discrepancies regarding absence without leave in the Grootfontein Military Base 2009-2011 en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US


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