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dc.contributor.author Ofoha, Dorothy
dc.date.accessioned 2018-01-12T13:10:13Z
dc.date.available 2018-01-12T13:10:13Z
dc.date.issued 2017
dc.identifier.citation Ofoha, D. (2017). Analysis of teacher reinforcement practices and reprimands system at the basic education classrooms: an observation study. Journal for Studies in Humanities and Social Sciences, 6(2), 218-232. en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/11070/2126
dc.description.abstract Access and retention are key components of the basic education programme in Nigeria. However, despite progress in access, low retention rate remains a key issue. Addressing the retention problem re-quires a critical review of current teacher classroom management practices. While positive reinforcement (PR) and reprimands are tools used by teachers to reinforce classroom behaviour, research sug-gests that retention is enhanced when PR outweighs reprimands by a ratio of 4:1. Although research has consistently shown that the use of reprimands is prevalent in Nigerian classrooms, data regarding the level of PR emission is lacking. Using a systematic observation method, this study examined the types, rate, frequency and pattern of PR system currently in use at the basic education classrooms vis-à-vis levels of reprimands with a view to providing baseline data for decision-making. Subjects included 60 teachers drawn from 20 schools (10 primary/10 junior secondary) in Lagos, southwest Nigeria. They were observed for 4 weeks during regular classroom teaching. Data collected were coded into quantitative categories and analysed with the use of frequencies, ratios, percentages, and chi-square test. Results showed that teachers delivered a low rate of PR and a high rate of reprimands at the ratio of approximately 1:6, far below the recommended level. No significant differences were found when the data were analysed by grade level and years of teaching. The findings are discussed in terms of their practical implications. To boost student retention at school, the use of PR strategies needs to be more widespread in the basic education classrooms. en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher University of Namibia en_US
dc.subject Teachers reinforcement en_US
dc.title Analysis of teacher reinforcement practices and reprimands system at the basic education classrooms: an observation study en_US
dc.type Article en_US


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