Examining the risk factors for hepatitis B infection among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Kunene region, a case control study select="/dri:document/dri:meta/dri:pageMeta/dri:metadata[@element='title']/node()"/>

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dc.contributor.author Mwaningange, Iyaloo Wilika
dc.date.accessioned 2018-05-27T15:08:19Z
dc.date.available 2018-05-27T15:08:19Z
dc.date.issued 2018
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/11070/2299
dc.description A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Applied Field Epidemiology en_US
dc.description.abstract The Hepatitis B is a viral infection caused by Hepatitis B virus (HBV) which is a double stranded DNA virus, a member of the Hepadnavidae family of viruses. World Health Organization estimates that about 257 million people are living with Hepatitis B virus infection. Namibia has a high prevalence of Hepatitis B infection (9%) among pregnant women and Kunene region prevalence of 8%. The researcher conducted an un-matched 2:1 case-control study to determine the associated risk factors for Hepatitis B infection among pregnant women in Kunene region. Cases were study subjects with reactive results for HBsAg or HBeAg and controls were study subjects with negative for both HBV markers. A total of 115 cases and 230 controls were interviewed. Mean age among the cases was 29 years range 16 – 45 (SD = 6.6), controls the mean was 26 years range 13 – 45 years (SD = 6.8). Bi-variate analysis was conducted to determine the odds ratios at 95% confidence level. Significant risk factors at p-value less than 0.05 were retained in multiple logistic regression models to determine significant associations. The multivariate analysis found that polygamous marriages (AO: 3.45; CI: 1.25 – 9.57; p= 0.02).Body piercing and scarification (AOR: 4.34; CI: 2.30 – 8.17; p= 0.00),body tattoos (AOR: 2.95; CI: 1.09 - 7.99; p = 0.03), history of abortion (AOR: 2.91; CI: 1.38 – 6.16; p= 0.00), STI’s (AOR: 3.34; 95%CI: 1.92 – 5.80; p= 0.00) and previous history tooth extraction or any dental procedures (AOR: 2.03; 95% CI: 1.17 – 3.54; p = 0.01) was significantly associated with Hepatitis B infection. Gravidity, parity, HIV positive status and history of blood transfusion were not associated risk factor in multivariate model (p = >0.05). The Ministry of Health and Social Services in Kunene region should implement preventative strategies such as Hepatitis B screening, treatment, health education, infection control and hepatitis B vaccination for the general population. en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher University of Namibia en_US
dc.subject Hepatitis B infection en_US
dc.subject Pregnant women en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Hepatitis B
dc.subject.lcsh Prenatal diagnosis, Namibia
dc.title Examining the risk factors for hepatitis B infection among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Kunene region, a case control study en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US


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