The impact of food insecurity on quality of life in Windhoek informal settlement: A structural equation modelling approach select="/dri:document/dri:meta/dri:pageMeta/dri:metadata[@element='title']/node()"/>

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dc.contributor.author Shinyemba, Tobias Willem
dc.date.accessioned 2019-06-10T13:24:08Z
dc.date.available 2019-06-10T13:24:08Z
dc.date.issued 2019
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/11070/2528
dc.description A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Applied Statistics and Demography en_US
dc.description.abstract Namibia is experiencing an increase in its population living in urban areas due to rapid urbanisation. However, this growth has not been the same in all parts of the country. Currently the biggest growth rate is experienced in Windhoek, which is home to about 16% of the total population. Due to rapid population growth, Windhoek has been facing a number of challenges such as high unemployment rate, illegal land occupation, and development of informal settlements among others. As a result, over-population has led to various social problems in informal settlements such as poor health condition, lack of access to clean water, unsustainable livelihood and food insecurity among others. Given the number of challenges faced by residents of informal settlements, there is a need to assess the impact of food insecurity on quality of life, since going without food does have an impact on people’s well-being. The objective of the study is to model the relationship between food insecurity and quality of life in Windhoek informal settlements using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) approach. Secondary data from a quantitative cross-sectional study were used. The study measured food insecurity using Household Food Insecurity Scale (HFIAS) indicators. World Health Organization Quality-of-Life Scale (WHOQOL-BREF) and European Quality of life (EQ-5D) instruments were used to measure quality of life. Multivariate statistical analysis using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA), Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and Hierarchal Clustering methods were applied to reduce dimensionality in the data, and to link food insecurity to quality of life. EFA results showed that from the set of ten (10) questions asked on food insecurity, only one component was adequate in explaining food insecurity. Similarly, results revealed that only four components (social, environmental, physical and psychological health) accounted for much variation in WHOQOL-BREF from the set of 21 questions asked. The findings further indicated that four constructs (pain/discomfort, anxiety/depression, self-care and usual activities) were sufficient in explaining quality of life based on EQ-5D instrument. All measurement scales for the constructs met the minimum condition of the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient, all with α ≥ 0.70. The study further assessed the level of agreement between data driven approach and existing method of food insecurity using Kappa test of symmetric. The results showed that there was a substantial agreement between HFIAS and the data driven, with a Kappa ( ) value of 0.68 (p < 0.001). Overall, latent models identified with EFA were validated using CFA before fitting SEM. Measurement models were evaluated based on goodness of fit, level of significance and coefficient signs, and non-significant models were modified by removing unstable parameters. The SEM was accepted based on the criteria used for CFA. The results showed that the model had a significant (1741) 4527.90 2   , p < 0.001 and SRMR = 0.07 and a RMSEA = 0.07 (90% CI=0.071; 0.077), which indicated that the model fits the data well. More importantly, the results supported that food insecurity was a significant predictor of quality of life outcomes (physical health, environmental health, social health, pain/discomfort, anxiety/depression, self-care and usual activities) in Windhoek informal settlements. The study further revealed that lack of access to food affect social well-being, environmental well-being and physical well-being in a negative way. Similarly, the study found that pain/discomfort, anxiety/depression, self-care, and usual activities were positively associated with food insecurity. en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher University of Namibia en_US
dc.subject Food insecurity en_US
dc.subject Informal settlement en_US
dc.title The impact of food insecurity on quality of life in Windhoek informal settlement: A structural equation modelling approach en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US


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