A model to facilitate the management of sanitation and hygiene practices amongst primary schools in Ohangwena region, Namibia select="/dri:document/dri:meta/dri:pageMeta/dri:metadata[@element='title']/node()"/>

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dc.contributor.author Shilunga, Anna Panduleni
dc.date.accessioned 2018-05-08T07:35:19Z
dc.date.available 2018-05-08T07:35:19Z
dc.date.issued 2018
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/11070/2217
dc.description A research Dissertation submitted in fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Public Health en_US
dc.description.abstract Schools are great platforms where children can learn hygiene skills, behaviours and practices, and when these become part of children’ daily lives, this may lead to a positive impact in families and communities at large. However, effective hygiene promotion in school can be severely affected if sanitation facilities are not adequately managed. UNICEF indicated that, despite the provision of water to schools in Ohangwena region, there are still a high proportion of schools without sanitation facilities. This study thus purposively focused on Ohangwena region in view of the above discussed challenges. The purpose of this study was to develop and describe a model to facilitate the management of sanitation and hygiene practices among primary schools in Ohangwena region. A mixed method design of quantitative, observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study, as well as a qualitative, exploratory, descriptive, as well as a theory generating design were used in the study. The study was based on four phases. Phase 1: Concept analysis was done by assessing the conditions of sanitation facilities, describing the knowledge, attitudes and practices of schools learners on hygiene practices, and exploring and describing the teachers’ perceptions of hygiene promotion in schools. A three-staged stratified sampling was used to select ten primary schools in five circuits, using a proportionate sampling method. A checklist and a questionnaire were used to collect quantitative data from sanitation facilities and (n=450) school learners in 10 primary schools. Simple random sampling was used to select learners in grades 5, 6 and 7 learners who were seven (7) years and older. Learners gave assent to participate in the study, while parents and teachers, gave permission as ’loco parentis’. Quantitative data were analysed with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23, while Tesch's method of open-coding was used to analyse qualitative data. Teachers were purposively sampled and signed a consent form to participate in the study. Five focus group discussions (FGDs) conducted with teachers to collect were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. The findings proved that a combination of challenges implicate the management and promotion of sanitation and hygiene practices stemmed from poor collaboration between the schools and parents and inefficient management of resources and facilities in schools, poor knowledge, bad attitudes and practices of learners toward hygiene. The three main concepts of management, collaboration and environment, were identified and analysed. Phase 2 involved the construction of the relationship statements of the model. The conceptual framework based on the three main concepts of analysis and the practice oriented theory by Dickoff et al (1968), was developed. Phase 3, a management of the collaborative environment model, to facilitate the management of sanitation and hygiene practices among primary schools in Ohangwena region, was developed and described. The model was described in terms of its purpose, concepts, definitions, structure, relationships and assumptions. Evaluation was done by expert researchers to validate whether the model brought about the desired outcome necessary to meet the study’s objectives. Phase 4 involved the development of the guidelines to operationalise the model. The guidelines were formulated in terms of objectives, strategies and activities based on the four objectives of the model. Recommendations, in terms of their application to the Ministry of Education, public health and nursing practice, as well as future research, were made en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher University of Namibia en_US
dc.subject Sanitation en_US
dc.subject Hygiene en_US
dc.subject.lcsh School health services
dc.subject.lcsh School hygiene
dc.subject.lcsh School children, Health and hygiene
dc.subject.lcsh Sanitation
dc.title A model to facilitate the management of sanitation and hygiene practices amongst primary schools in Ohangwena region, Namibia en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US

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