UNAM Scholarly Repository

The UNAM Scholarly repository serves as a central platform to preserve and showcase the university's scholalry output.


Recent Submissions

Assessing the impact of online learning on student performance at the Namibia business school during COVID-19
(University of Namibia, 2022) Nambambi, Hilma
The aim of thisthesis was to assesses the impact of online learning on student performance at the Namibia Business School during the COVID-19 pandemic. This was in relation to students studying towards their Postgraduate Diploma, Masters and Doctor of Business Administration. Data was gathered from 3 different campuses including the Windhoek main campus, Ongwediva and Swakopmund Campuses. Data for the study was collected from a quantitative sample of registered students at the Namibia Business School at the University of Namibia. Questionnaires were administered and distributed online because of the COVID-19 regulations that were prevailing at the time of the study. The study found several challenges to be affecting students’ online journey and key among them included lack of internet access, cost of data and noisy environments. Further analysis of the findings shows that the online learning processes, benefits of online and student motivation are critical and statistically significant predictors of students’ performance in online environments. The study concluded that with several challenges in place, online learning could be problematic, and these challenges need the cooperation of higher education managers and government. It is imperative for NBS to leverage the data-driven insights obtained from this study to design adaptable and flexible learning approaches that cater to the diverse needs of its student community. By harnessing the potential of technology and tailoring educational resources to promote interactive and collaborative learning experiences, NBS can create an environment that empowers students to thrive academically, even in times of crisis
Sorghum, its proteins and Thai LIME Shouldn’t the Use of Kaffir, Kafir, Kaffirin and Kafirin as Common Nouns be Discontinued?
(International Journal of CRITICAL DIVERSITY STUDIES 5.2, 2022) Komeine, Nantanga
It is trite that most Indigenous food resources in former politically colonised nations have been given English or some other Western common or trivial names. The oppressed people especially in southern Africa were not spared from derogatory and/or racist names such as Kaffir or Kafir, a derogatory reference name equivalent to Nigga or Negro that was used in America. Over time and as political freedom and independence were gained through liberation struggles between the colonisers and the colonised, the use of derogatory and/or racist names against the formerly oppressed people became legally actionable. It is almost forgotten that the offensive, derogatory and/or racist names were not limited to the oppressed people. The natural environments, land and other resources such as Indigenous plants, fruits, rivers, serene spaces and animals were also apparently named by the colonisers and Western botanists or those who allegedly discovered these resources, even though the Indigenous names for such resources existed before the arrival of different agents of colonialisation.
Effects of feeding maize-soybean meal based diets with a tanniniferous additive (A. karroo leaf meal) to broiler chickens
(University of Namibia, 2013) Shihepo, Sesilia; Mpofu, Irvin; Petrus, Patricia
The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of feeding maize-soybean meal based diets with a tanniferous additive (A. karroo leaf meal) mainly on the fat deposition of broiler chickens under Namibian environmental conditions.treatments were imposed on the finisher stage of maturity. Therefore, research is recommended to test the treatment from day old chickens. Repeated feeding trials on a larger scale is recommended before A. karroo can be safely used by feed manufacturers. The same research should be done with different broiler breeds (indigenous chickens)
The nexus between financial innovations and velocity of money: Evidence from Namibia
(University of Namibia, 2022) Uugulu, Tomas Mekondjo
The study of the velocity for money in an economy is a central issue in central bank policy formulation. This is so because a steady demand for money function is vital for the conduct of effective monetary policy. The study investigated the relationship between financial innovations and the velocity of money in the Namibian economy. Secondary data from the World Bank and Bank of Namibia, covering the period 2000 to 2020. The study relied on the Autoregressive Distributed Lag Model technique to test the relationship. The founding objectives were named to explore whether financial innovation explained the velocity of money and secondly whether there existed a short run or a long-run relationship between the selected variables. The results indicate that financial innovations explain the velocity of money in the economy, and the Error Correction model determined that there was an existent long-run relationship between the variables. The margin of the inverse relationship was evident from the coefficient of - 1.107354, meaning that an increase by one unit change in financial innovation caused a -1.107354 decrease in the velocity of money in the economy. Hence, the study found that both in the short-run and long-run financial sector innovations are inseparably linked with the velocity of money. The model also included two control variables GDP and the opportunity cost of holding money as the theoretical foundation nominate the two variables to also affect money demand which eventually affects velocity of money. The results found that a positive relationship existed between the GDP variable and velocity of money and the magnitude effect of the relationship is shown by the coefficient. The other variable opportunity cost of holding money was found to be statistically insignificant as showed the probability and the t-statistic. From these results, a cautionary advice would be extended to the policymakers to manage this dynamic relationships better as it has a bearing on the monetary policy framework in the case of the velocity of money (money demand function) in an economy
The impact of micro-finance on poverty alleviation: A case study of Swakopmund youths
(University of Namibia, 2023) Kaninas, Zelda
This study investigated the impact of microfinance on poverty alleviation, using a sample of 100 participants drawn from 3 microfinance institutions in Swakopmund. In addition, the study employed a descriptive case study as a research design for quantitative research. The SPSS software was used to analyse the quantitative data that was collected from the field research. Income, education, consumption spending, health care, nutrition, non-land asset holdings, social empowerment and housing conditions were among the eight variables used to measure the impact of microfinance on household welfare. Furthermore, three business indicators were utilised to assess the impact of microfinance on firm growth. Sales, profits, and capital are examples of these. The impact of four microfinance variables on household welfare was also estimated in this study. The overall value of microfinance loans, the length of participation in microfinance programs, the total number of microfinance loans, and the average yearly interest rate were all factors considered in the study. It is important to note that longer participation in microfinance programs improves the likelihood of perceived improvements in income, consumption spending, and social empowerment, according to the logistic regression results. Furthermore, raising the total quantity of microfinance loans raises the chances of better-perceived health care access. Higher interest rates reduce the odds of better-perceived income, education, consumption expenditure, social empowerment, and living conditions whereas higher cumulative value of microfinance loans reduces the odds of better-perceived income, consumption expenditure, education, and health care. The study's major recommendations are aimed at policymakers, international organisations, and non-governmental organisations (NGOs). Microfinance is not an effective poverty alleviation strategy at this time, as seen by the circumstances on the ground, and alternative initiatives aimed at producing jobs for the poor are required. In terms of policy impact, the government of the Republic of Namibia ought to ensure that social assistance programs reach the needy and that public goods are of high quality until a successful poverty-alleviation program is established. Moreover, it can also foster sustainable, market-based microfinance by reducing unfair competition from governmental institutions; implementing regulatory reform; and finally strengthening the business climate
Investigating strategies to improve superior sustainable performance in the Namibian mining industry
(University of Namibia, 2023) Moongo, Thomas Ehongo
The mining industry is the primary sector anchor and the largest contributor to the gross domestic product (GDP) of the Namibian economy and it can potentially drive the country towards industrialization by adding value to its products via the implementation of the Mineral Beneficiation Strategy (MBS). Unfortunately, the mining industry is currently unsustainable because 52% of the operations have stopped production. This research is aimed at investigating strategies that may potentially improve superior sustainable performance in the Namibian mining industry. The research methodology applied, utilised the explanatory sequential mixed methods research (MMR) approach. In this case, quantitative and qualitative data were collected by using a self-administered open-ended questionnaire and a semi-structured interview guide, respectively. To improve superior sustainable performance, the data inferred that the mines should successfully execute strategic projects such as the life of mine extension, increasing production, improving efficiencies, and improving all-in sustaining cost (AISC). It was found that the major factors negatively influencing superior sustainable performance include the following: a decline in commodity prices, mine flooding due to underground water, geotechnical risks, depleted ore reserves, declined ore grade, and mineralogical changes. The strategies to improve superior sustainable performance were established by applying a SWOT/TOWS analysis model and by creating an integrated strategy map that consider several mining operation sustainability aspects. Initiatives for reducing the cost of electrical power were recommended i.e., building a nuclear power plant, green hydrogen plant and the Kudu gas power station. Further research should focus on the policy regarding tax relief for mining companies that are struggling to remain sustainable
An investigative study into the impact of the newly introduced procurement policy on the supply chain departments in Namibia
(University of Namibia, 2022) Shikongo, Martha N.
The study investigated the impact of the newly introduced procurement act on the supply chain departments in Namibia. The Public Procurement Act, 2015 (Act No. 15 of 2015) was enacted and came into effect on 01 April 2017. The act aims to increase transparency and accountability. The Namibian government uses public procurement to achieve socio-economic objectives, which are commonly referred to as horizontal policies. This practice is a widely accepted tool of public procurement and has been around for a long time and includes objectives such as poverty alleviation by reducing the unemployment rate and providing equal opportunities to groups from previously disadvantaged communities such as women and youth through economic empowerment. The mixed methods research design was used in this study. Purposive sampling was used to select employees from finance and procurement departments. The study established that 40% of the respondents were male while 60% were female. In addition, 80% of the participants indicated that the procurement act had improved the processes of selecting suppliers, while 20% of the respondents thought there was no improvement. A total of 40% of the respondents indicated that the effectiveness of the procurement act was high, and 30% indicated that it was just average. Conversely, 15% of the respondents indicated that it was low, 5% indicated that it was very low, and 5% indicated that it was very high. The study also established that the Government should invest in appropriate information and communication technology such as databases on goods and services prices to support procurement officials in their daily work and decisions. A key challenge in Namibia has been the need to define an adequate level of transparency to ensure fair and equal treatment of providers and integrity in public procurement, given that transparency in public procurement bears an immediate cost for government and bidders. The recommendations drawn from the research were that there should be promotion and enhancement of transparency regarding preferential procurement policies, determinants, and related information for the public and promotion of inclusion of new entrants in the supplier value chain
Radionuclide concentrations and radiation hazard assessment in the soil of Otjiwarongo, Namibia
(University of Namibia, 2020) Kapofi, Naeman Tuyoleni
The natural radioactivity and associated hazards in soil samples collected from the town of Otjiwarongo, Namibia, have been studied by gamma ray spectroscopy. The town was divided into ten geographical areas and five soil samples were collected across each area. The samples were dried, homogenized and 500 g of each sample was placed in a clearly-labelled 500 mL polythene bottle and sealed for four weeks. HPGe detector was subsequently used to obtain gamma ray spectra of the samples. The intensities of selected gamma lines were used to determine the activity concentrations of the primordial radionuclides 238U, 232Th, and 40K in the soil samples. The mean activity concentrations of the radionuclides in the ten geographical areas vary from 37.6 ± 7.4 to a high of 97.8 ± 46.2 Bq/kg for 238U, from 81.9 ± 16.7 to a very high of 852.8 ± 533.0 Bq/kg for 232Th and from 498.7 ± 55.7 to 807.1 ± 94.5 Bq/kg for 40K. All these mean activity concentrations are higher than the corresponding world-wide average values of 33.0 Bq/kg, 45.0 Bq/ kg and 420.0 Bq/kg for 238U, 232Th and 40K respectively, according to United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) 2000 report. Furthermore, the mean activity concentrations of some of the radionuclides in some areas are more than double those of the other areas thus indicating that the distribution of radionuclides in the soil of the town is not uniform. In order to assess the hazards associated with the radionuclides, different radiation hazard parameters such as absorbed dose rate, effective dose rate, radium equivalent activity (Raeq), and external radiation hazard index (Hex), were calculated from the activity concentrations of the radionuclides. The mean absorbed dose rates in the ten areas vary from 90.0 ± 13.7 to 593.9 ± 347.2 nGy h-1 and are all higher than the world average value of 60.0 nGy h-1 . However, the ii corresponding mean effective dose rates vary from 0.11 ± 0.01 to 0.73 ± 0.43 mSv/y which are all below the maximum permissible limit of 1 mSv/y, according to the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) reference level for public exposure control. Furthermore, the mean effective dose rates in seven of the areas are relatively low and below 0.2 mSv/y while those in the other three areas are relatively high and above 0.2 mSv/y. These results indicate that the level of radiation varies across the town and it is low in seven geographical areas but higher in three areas. The mean values of the radium equivalent activity in the ten areas vary from 197.9 ± 31.5 to a very high value of 1379.5 ± 815.7 Bq/kg. Again, the mean Raeq in the seven geographical areas are low and below the maximum permissible limit of 370 Bq/kg while they are high and above the permissible limit in the other three areas. Similarly, the mean values of Hex in the seven geographical areas are below the maximum permissible limit of unity but they are above the permissible limit in the other three areas. These results confirm that the level of ionizing radiation in most areas of Otjiwarongo is well-below the maximum permissible limit while the level in three other areas of the town is high and the hazard indices are above the maximum permissible limit
Growth and carcass performance of broiler chickens when maize is replaced with pearl millet under Namibian weather conditions
(University of Namibia, 2013) Hafeni, Sesilia; Mpofu, Irvin; Patricia, Petrus
This study was conducted at the poultry units at Neudamm Agricultural Campus of the University of Namibia. Neudamm Agricultural Campus It determined that a successful broiler production is dependent upon supplying the birds with feed ofthe highest achievable quality, in terms of ingredients used, processing procedures applied as well as the form in which the diet is presented to broilers (Arbor Acres, 2009). There was no study done in Namibia to determine the value of the local PM grains as a commercial broiler feed, as compared to maize which is commonly used in broiler chicken diets by broiler commercial operations. The objective of this experiment was to study the performance of commercial broiler chickens fed pearl millet as a replacement of maize
An assessment of the impact of public service delivery on customer satisfaction: A case study of Okahandja municipality, Namibia
(University of Namibia, 2022) Shoongeleni, Wilhermine N
This study sought to assess the impact of public service delivery on customer satisfaction at Okahandja Municipality in order to determine whether the residents of Okahandja are satisfied with the services being rendered or not, such as good sanitation, clean, healthy and reasonable water bills, uninterrupted or blocked sewage systems, healthy road networks, working street lights and collection of rubbish by the Municipality. This study utilised mixed methods through administering questionnaires with structured questions to the residents of Okahandja and conducting one-on-one interviews with employees of the Okahandja Municipality. Fifty-five participants were selected for inclusion in the study of which 51 were customers, and 4 were employees of the Municipality. Quantitative data was analysed through frequency tables, descriptive statistics, correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 27. Qualitative data was analysed using thematic analysis in which occurring themes and patterns in information gathered were identified. Findings revealed that the respondents mainly disagreed with the quality-of-service delivery at the Okahandja Municipality, in terms of water supply, electricity supply and fares and taxes charged, as well as their overall satisfaction. The results also revealed that financial constraints, community participation, inadequate employee capacity and poor planning are some of the challenges faced by the municipality in delivering quality public service. The study recommends that the Okahandja Municipality look into practicing and implementing the five dimensions of quality service in its organisation as well as to ii try to utilise the Gap Analysis Theory yearly, in order to develop the organisation and promote employee training