Malaria risk factors in Northern Namibia: The importance of occupation, age and mobility in characterizing high-risk populations select="/dri:document/dri:meta/dri:pageMeta/dri:metadata[@element='title']/node()"/>

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dc.contributor.author Smith, Jennifer L.
dc.date.accessioned 2021-08-06T06:45:35Z
dc.date.available 2021-08-06T06:45:35Z
dc.date.issued 2021
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/11070/3054
dc.description.abstract In areas of low and unstable transmission, malaria cases occur in populations with lower access to malaria services and interventions, and in groups with specific malaria risk exposures often away from the household. In support of the Namibian National Vector Borne Disease Program’s drive to better target interventions based upon risk, we implemented a health facility-based case control study aimed to identify risk factors for symptomatic malaria in Zambezi Region, northern Namibia. A total of 770 febrile individuals reporting to 6 health facilities and testing positive by rapid diagnostic test (RDT) between February 2015 and April 2016 were recruited as cases; 641 febrile individuals testing negative by RDT at the same health facilities through June 2016 were recruited as controls. Data on socio-demographics, housing construction, overnight travel, use of malaria prevention and outdoor behaviors at night were collected through interview and recorded on a tablet-based questionnaire. Remotely-sensed environmental data were extracted for geo-located village residence locations. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to identify risk factors and latent class analyses (LCA) used to identify and characterize high-risk subgroups. The majority of participants (87% of cases and 69% of controls) were recruited during the 2016 transmission season, an outbreak year in Southern Africa. After adjustment, cases were more likely to be cattle herders (Adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR): 4.46 95%CI 1.05–18.96), members of the police or other security personnel (aOR: 4.60 95%CI: 1.16–18.16), and pensioners/unemployed persons (aOR: 2.25 95%CI 1.24–4.08), compared to agricultural workers (most common category). Children (aOR 2.28 95%CI 1.13–4.59) and self-identified students were at higher risk of malaria (aOR: 4.32 95%CI 2.31–8.10). Other actionable risk factors for malaria included housing and behavioral characteristics, including traditional home construction and sleeping in an open structure (versus modern structure: aOR: 2days (aOR: 10.55 95%CI 2.94–37.84); and outdoor agricultural work at night (aOR: 2.09 95%CI 1.12–3.87). Malaria preventive activities were all protective and included personal use of an insecticide treated net (ITN) (aOR: 0.61 95%CI 0.42–0.87), adequate household ITN coverage (aOR: 0.63 95%CI 0.42–0.94), and household indoor residual spraying (IRS) in the past year (versus never sprayed: (aOR: 0.63 95%CI 0.44–0.90). A number of environmental factors were associated with increased risk of malaria, including lower temperatures, higher rainfall and increased vegetation for the 30 days prior to diagnosis and residing more than 5 minutes from a health facility. LCA identified six classes of cases, with class membership strongly correlated with occupation, age and select behavioral risk factors. Use of ITNs and IRS coverage was similarly low across classes. For malaria elimination these high-risk groups will need targeted and tailored intervention strategies, for example, by implementing alternative delivery methods of interventions through schools and worksites, as well as the use of specific interventions that address outdoor transmission. en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher PLoS ONE en_US
dc.subject Symptomatic malaria en_US
dc.subject Vector borne disease en_US
dc.subject Malaria endemic en_US
dc.title Malaria risk factors in Northern Namibia: The importance of occupation, age and mobility in characterizing high-risk populations en_US
dc.type Article en_US


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