Non-communicable diseases risk factors among adults in Oshikoto region, Namibia select="/dri:document/dri:meta/dri:pageMeta/dri:metadata[@element='title']/node()"/>

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Show simple item record Ashipala, Emilia Shiwa 2021-09-01T12:15:58Z 2021-09-01T12:15:58Z 2019
dc.description A research thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Applied Field Epidemiology en_US
dc.description.abstract Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes and chronic respiratory diseases continues to be the major development challenges in the 21st century and causes more than 40 million deaths every year global. NCDs count for 43% of total deaths in Namibia 2014, and in Oshikoto Region they are among top10 causes of mortality. The risk factors for NCDs in Namibia needed to be evaluated, therefore, this study was conducted to determine the NCDs (diabetic mellitus and hypertension) risk factors among adult in Oshikoto region, Namibia. A quantitative, descriptive, community population-based, cross- sectional survey was conducted using WHO STEPwise approach among 375 adults in Oshikoto region between November 2018 to January 2019. A stratified cluster random sampling method was used to select household. Demographic and behavioral risk factors were obtained using interview administered questionnaire. The researcher measured body weight, height, blood pressure and random blood glucose and calculated Body Mass Index (BMI). Body weight was classified as overweight (BMI 25kg/m2 – 29.9 kg/m2), obese (BMI ≥ 30kg/m2). BP ≥140/90 was classified as hypertension and RBG > 11.1mmol/l as diabetes mellitus. Univariate analysis determines the prevalence of NCDs risk factors. Bivariate and multivariate analysis for Odds Ratio and 95% CI was done to determine the association between risk factors and NCDs based on p-value <0.05. Out of a total of 375 participants, 279 (74.4%) were female. Mean age was 42.9 ±15.0 standard deviation (SD), range: 18-101. Most participants 244 (65.1%) were residing in rural areas while in urban area were 131 (34.9%) and 8.2 in semi-urban areas. Overall prevalence for risk factors were: physical inactivity (25.3%), unhealthy diet (75.7%), tobacco use (9.1%), harmful use of alcohol (40.8%). Overall, 20.5% were overweight with majority (85.7%) of them females. Obesity was 9.1% in which 91.2% were females. Hypertension prevalence was 24.3% and for DM was only 3.2%. Four percent individuals were having two multiple risk factors for NCDs, 2.4% with four risk factors and 1.1% with more than four risk factors. Age group (OR=2.48,95%CI=1.44-4.26, P=0.001), Obesity (OR=3.48,95%CI=1.55-7.79, P=0.003), and overweight (OR=2.34,95%CI=1.31-4.19, P =0.004) were significant risk factors for NCDs. This study revealed a high prevalence and burden of Non-communicable diseases risk factors such as obesity and overweight among adult in Oshikoto region, thus, these results highlight the need to evaluate and strengthen the existing interventions towards the prevention and control of those NCDs risk factors in Oshikoto region, Namibia. en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher University of Namibia en_US
dc.subject Non-communicable diseases en_US
dc.subject Risk factors en_US
dc.title Non-communicable diseases risk factors among adults in Oshikoto region, Namibia en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US

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