In vitro antimalarial properties and chemical composition of Diospyros chamaethamnus extracts

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Diospyros chamaethamnus, a low woody perennial, which is endemic to Namibia, Botswana, Angola, and Zambia, is used in the management of malaria. The current study aimed to assess the effectiveness of this plant against malaria parasites and to identify some of the compounds, which may be responsible for the therapeutic properties of this plant. Dried roots were macerated in dichloromethane-methanol (1:1 v/v) and water to isolate phytoconstituents, which were then screened for antimalarial activity using the P. falciparum chloroquine-sensitive strain, D10. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities of the plant extracts were deter-mined using the DPPH method. Lastly, the plant extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Moderate in vitro antiplasmodial activity (IC50 < 50 mg/ml) was observed for the D. chamae-thamnus organic (19.51 mg/mL) and aqueous (18.30 mg/mL) extracts. Antioxidant activity based on DPPH scavenging potential showed that D. chamaethamnus aqueous and organic extracts exhibited significant anti-oxidant activities with IC50 values of 7.63 and 10.74 mg/mL, respectively. Some of the biologically active com- pounds found in the extracts of D. chamaethamnus include lupeol, palmitic acid, stigmasterol, and pyrogallol. These findings support the use of D. chamaethamnus against malaria and/or malaria-associated symptoms and provide a foundation or guide for further studies of this plant as an alternative treatment option for malaria.
Diospyros chamaethamnus, Traditional medicine, Namibia, Antimalarial, Antioxidant, Chemical composition