Issue 1 (JSHSS Vol. 7) Special Edition

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    Association of Human Papiloma Virus (HPV) 16 and 18 in breast cancer biopsies in Namibia
    (University of Namibia, 2018) Mumbengegwi, Davis R.; Van Kent, Samuelia; Tambo, Munyaradzi
    Cancer is a growing global health concern due to increased exposure to risk factors including infection by viruses such as human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV is associated with several cancers and may be an etiological agent contributing to increasing breast cancer cases in Namibia. This study investigated the association between HPV infection and breast cancer cases in Namibia. DNA was isolated from 47 breast tumour biopsies, (22 breast cancer positive and 25 negative) and analysed for HPV 16 and 18 sequences using PCR. HPV 16 and 18 were detected in 86.3 % and 81.8 % respectively, of breast cancer positive samples, whilst only 36 % and 48 % respectively, were found in breast cancer negative samples. In total 95.5 % of breast cancer positive samples were infected by at least either of HPV 16 or 18 compared to only 52 % of breast cancer negative samples. Infection with HPV 16 or 18 increases the risk of cervical cancer and possibly breast cancer, hence the results suggest that HPV may contribute to the increasing breast cancer statistics in Namibia. This is the first study in Namibia linking HPV and breast cancer, but a larger sample size will be required to power the study to make the findings statistically significant.
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    Disaster and health vulnerability assessment for the population of the Kingdom of Bhutan
    (University of Namibia, 2018) Tandlick, Roman; Angala, Hallo; Vhiriri, Eunice P.; Ngqwala, Nosiphiwe P.; Srinivas, Sunitha C.
    Bhutan has reached medium level of human development. This and other factors make it prone to the negative impacts of climate change, flooding, droughts and epidemics. The government of Bhutan has participated in regional initiatives aimed at dealing with vulnerability to floods and droughts. However, some dimensions of the country’s and population’s vulnerability have not been studied yet. Therefore, a combination of literature review and calculations was used to assess the health, WASH and socio-economic dimensions of vulnerability of the Bhutanese population. Results of the review indicate that the government of Bhutan has initiated programmes with focus on the health outcomes of climate change and on universal access to healthcare. Critical efforts have focused on the compilation of the essential medicines’ list and targeting the risk factors of non-communicable diseases such as alcohol abuse. By 2013, 95 % of the Kingdom’s population had access to a healthcare facility within three hours walking distance from their dwelling and the main avenue of access is through government facilities. From 2008 to 2013, the expanded medical infrastructure vulnerability index ranged from 1.858 to 2.420 per 1000 inhabitants/citizens between 2008 and 2013, i.e. Bhutan achieved the World Health Organisation target of 2.3 healthcare professionals per 1000 inhabitants. The WASH vulnerability criterion decreased from 0.241 in 2000 to 0.128 in 2013. There was a strong correlation between the WASH vulnerability of the Bhutanese population and its economic/social vulnerability at 5 % level of significance (p-value = 1.2×10-5 and 7.06×10-4, respectively). Such correlations can be used as a guide for policy development, adaptation and development for further vulnerability decrease in the Kingdom of Bhutan
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    Trend analysis on gender disparities in Namibia's mining sector: Evidence from the Affirmative Action reports of 2011-2015
    (University of Namibia, 2018) Mwetulundila, Paulus N.; Indongo, Nelago
    Gender inequality has become a global concern as it involves the denial of opportunities and equal rights based on ones’ gender. Namibia is no exception to this global phenomenon. The country’s labour force is characterised by inequalities based on gender, despite the various government interventions to address such disparities. Like many governments across the globe, the Namibian government through its Employment Equity Commission enacted the Affirmative Action (employment) Act No. 29 of 1998 to ensure that all Namibians enjoy equal employment opportunities and benefits. This paper examines the trends on Affirmative Action (employment) Act in the mining sector - one of the gendered sectors. It utilises data from Affirmative Action Act annual reports of 2011/2, 2012/3, 2013/4, and 2014/5 provided by the Employment Equity Commission. The paper concluded that the country’s mining sector is still dominated by prejudice, stereotypes, and discriminatory practices based on gender orientation. As a result, the participation of women in this sector is still minimal. The paper makes recommendations on innovative practices adopted by other countries in the retention and attraction of women into the gendered sector
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    The retail sector growth, expansion, employment and income inequality: A case study of Shoprite and Pick N Pay in South Africa and Namibia
    (University of Namibia, 2018) Mathekga, Jerry Mmanoko; Maciko, Loyiso
    The South African and Namibian economy is liberalised, and there is a movement of big companies from outside Africa to South Africa and Namibia. Some South African firms are operating in Namibia. Shoprite and Pick n Pay have grown and expanded in South Africa and other parts of Africa. These companies have contributed to job creation in South Africa and Namibia. However, most of the jobs created are sub-standard employment with little benefits and low wages. This paper argues that sub-standard employment created by Shoprite and Pick n Pay regenerates and deepens cheap labour, income inequality and labour exploitation. The paper aims to provide a picture of the current state of income inequality at Shoprite and Pick n Pay, and argues that sub-standard employment is the main driver of this situation in South Africa and Namibia. The paper uses the secondary and current data to examine and highlight the income inequalities at Pick n Pay and Shoprite. The results show that sub-standard employment by Pick n Pay and Shoprite regenerates cheap labour systems, income inequality, and exploitation. The paper also recommends that there is a need to identify and address the employment discrepancies, and then construct a different kind of workplace solidarity and legislative framework which takes seriously the changes taking place in retail sectors. Such a change calls for a more effective regulatory framework to overcome insecurities experienced by retail workers as a result of different employment contracts and income inequalities.
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    Age and sex-specific risk factors for non-communicable diseases among adults in Namibia: A case study of diabetes and hypertension
    (University of Namibia, 2018) Indongo, Nelago; Kazembe, Lawrence N.
    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have become a major public health concern in both developed and developing countries. In Namibia, NCD attributable deaths are increasing; estimated at about 43% of all the deaths. Mapping context-specific risk factors of NCDs is critical for public health interventions. This study aimed to determine the age and sex-specific prevalence and associated factors of NCDs, particularly diabetes and high blood pressure among the adult population in Namibia. Using the 2013 Namibia Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) data, we generate agerelated charts for both women and men, and fitted separate multiple logistic regression models for men and women, controlling for age. Our findings show that, for both women and men, the risk of diabetes and high blood pressure increased by age. However, older men were more likely to have high blood pressure than women. Equally, for both women and men, the risk of diabetes and hypertension disease increase with body mass index and wealth index. Evidently, implementation of gender and age-specific interventions may accelerate reduction of disparities in non-communicable diseases burden. These may include interventions that encourage change of lifestyle like engaging in physical activities, eating healthy and regular check-ups.
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    Through role play to self-awareness: Using process drama as a communication tool around adolescent peer pressure and drug abuse
    (University of Namibia, 2018) Chidaura, Isaac
    This research attempts to raise self-awareness and articulate issues pertaining to adolescent peer pressure and drug abuse through the lens of process drama in South African primary schools. The target group for this project was grade 7C learners of St Theresa’s Convent Primary School in Coronationville, Johannesburg. The study’s framework is underpinned by Drama in Education, Theatre for Development and Theatre of the Oppressed theories. The study used a participatory workshop case study approach within the qualitative action research paradigm. Data was gathered through focus group discussions and participant observation. Research instruments included interview guides, questionnaire and an observation checklist, and data was also digitally recorded. Mantle of the expert and teacher-in-role were the overarching process drama techniques essential for participants to be able to negotiate, make decisions and solve challenges in drug abusing circumstances. This research findings show how the safety of process drama through the creation of “dramatic elsewhere”, distancing, framing and role playing works towards constructive social change. The research notes that, transformation is not an event, but a process which is dependent on encounters, relationships and learning. Findings call for efforts to address adolescent substance abuse, engage the wider population and not just empower the concerned adolescents. The research recommends that process drama be emphasised, because of the dynamic and constantly changing nature of adolescents and the drugs that they use.