Doctoral Degrees (DCME)

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    Water resources governance in the upper Swakop basin of Namibia
    (University of Namibia, 2018) Pazvakawambwa, Godfrey T.
    This dissertation examined and presented adaptive water governance analysis and tools for the Upper Swakop Basin (USB) in Namibia where integrated river basin management is still in its infancy. The water governance concerns in the basin include pollution monitoring and control challenges that are further threatening the security and adequacy of the developed drinking water sources. By applying and triangulating different methods (models, statistical analysis, quantitative and qualitative measures etc.), this study uniquely analysed the water governance issues in the Upper Swakop Basin. The objectives of the study were to assess the water quality at potential pollution sources and at major receiving waters in the Upper Swakop Basin based on secondary data obtained from key stakeholders; to evaluate the adequacy and availability of drinking water sources in the USB; to assess the ethical, social and acceptability perceptions of water reuse for potable purposes based on primary data obtained from a purposive stakeholder survey; to qualitatively assess water governance structures and participation as well as to evaluate overall water governance processes and outcomes in the USB. Water quality parameters were assessed using descriptive statistics, extreme value analysis, spatial analysis and some of the parameters were compared to those given in the water quality regulations and standards of Namibia using ANOVA. The adequacy and availability of water was assessed using the simple water balance method, the Box-Jenkins ARIMA time series forecasting models, and the WEAP model. The ethical, social and health acceptability views and perceptions on water reuse for potable purposes were assessed using frequency tables, charts, and graphs. Stakeholder participation was analysed using scenario workshops, mediated modelling and social multi-criteria evaluation methods and was based on the ADVISOR framework. The researcher developed the 7”I”s water governance tool which was used to map stakeholders and to assess the overall water governance performance of the USB. The study found that water pollution parameters values were extremely high for agro-industries. Moreover it was found that the developed water resources supplying the USB are inadequate especially in Windhoek where additional drinking water sources outside the USB are required to augment its demand of 26.7 Mm3 per annum in 2015 to a projected amount of 52.93 Mm3 per annum in 2050. Acceptability levels of water reuse for potable purposes were found to be moderate. Stakeholder participation in water governance needs to be more inclusive. The existing legal and institutional framework for water governance was found to be inadequate due to lack of implementing technical capacity (in terms of personnel, technical skills, database management and information sharing). One of the unique contribution of the study to new knowledge is the development of the 7”I”s evaluation tool for overall water governance performance which can also be used in other similar basins. The pollution extreme parameter values assessment is proposed as a quick and initial evaluation of any problematic river catchment and to take remedial measures on would be polluters. Proper water pollution control and compliance strategies should be stepped up for agro-based industrial landuses. Landuse based water governance policy interventions may be required to prevent water pollution on the Swakoppoort Dam. The study proposed a new concept of utilizing the smaller already polluted Goreangab Dam, which receives polluted water from Windhoek and is situated upstream of Swakoppoort Dam, as a pollution detention and check dam as well as a clean-up dam for the downstream dam. A study on the feasibility of this new concept should be carried out. If the concept proves to be successful, it could be used to solve the problem of polluted dams downstream of “city river catchments” elsewhere. The time series of the rainfall in Windhoek area was stationary. This could mean climate change might have had little effect on Windhoek rainfall for the past 121 years. Therefore the study recommended more adaptive water resource planning, multi-source optimization and water governance initiatives of exploring the available secondary sources for the sustainable development of the USB. Water security in the USB can be enhanced by optimizing the Windhoek Rechargeable Aquifer Storage capacity. Institutions that supply bulk water to Windhoek can be unified into a single water governance institution to optimize and integrate these multiple sources. Based on adaptive water governance resource planning and multi-source optimization, the study further proposed a basin management strategy to ensure suitable water quality and quantity and to build adequate technical capacity.