Research Articles (DP) Pharmacy

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    Plasma concentration and eGFR in preterm and term neonates receiving gentamicin or successive amikacin therapy
    (BMC Pediatrics, 2023) Singu, Bonifasius S.; Ndeunyema, Milka N.; Ette, Ene I.; Pieper, Clarissa H.; Verbeeck, Roger K.
    Background: Gentamicin and amikacin are aminoglycoside antibiotics which are renally excreted and known to be nephrotoxic. Estimate of glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) per body surface area is lower in neonates than in adults and exposure to these drugs could lead to more suppression in kidney function. The aim of this study was to determine maximum and minimum plasma concentrations (Cmax and Cmin), time to reach Cmin levels of gentamicin and amika-cin, and to assess eGFR in preterm and term neonates. Methods:Two groups of patients were recruited, 44 neonates receiving gentamicin (5 mg/kg/24 h) and 35 neonates receiving amikacin (15 mg/kg/24 h) by slow intravenous injection. Patients on amikacin had been on gentamicin before being switched to amikacin. Two blood samples were drawn for the determination of the maximum and minimum plasma concentration. Primary outcomes were determination of Cmax, Cmin, and the time it took to clear the aminoglycoside to a plasma concentration below the toxicity threshold (gentamicin: < 1 mcg/mL; amikacin: < 5 mcg/mL. Results: Therapeutic range for Cmax of gentamicin (15–25 mcg/mL) or amikacin (30–40 mcg/mL) was achieved in only 27.3 and 2.9% of neonates, respectively. Percentage of neonates reaching plasma concentrations below the tox-icity threshold within the 24-hour dosing interval was 72.7% for gentamicin and 97.1% for amikacin. Positive correla-tion between gentamicin clearance and postnatal age borderline statistical significance (p=0.007), while the correla-tion between amikacin clearance and postnatal age was poor and not statistically significant (r2=− 0.30, p= 0.971). Conclusion: Although eGFR decreased significantly as a function of postnatal age in neonates receiving amikacin, the majority (91.4%) of these neonates were able to clear the drug to < 5 mcg/mL within a 24-hour dosing interval. Keywords: Neonates, Kidney function, Gentamicin, Amikacin, Nephrotoxicity