Issue 2 (JSHSS Vol. 5)

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    The relevance of integrating Ethno-Science (Indigenous knowledge) into Upper Primary Natural Sciences and Health Education School Curriculum in the Zambezi Region
    (University of Namibia, 2016) Utete, Christina N.; Ilukena, Alex M.; Simasiku, Muyumbano B.
    There is widespread concern about the outcomes of science education in Namibian schools. The representatives of industries say that they need high-grade scientists, technicians and engineers if Namibia is to successfully compete in technology-intensive global markets by 2030. Ethno-science is a specialisation of indigenous knowledge (IK). It focuses on a scientific perspective of culture. The re-search that resulted in this article critically analysed the relevance of integrating ethno-science (IK) into the Upper Primary School curriculum in Namibia. The research further looked at how the people in the Zambezi region have developed a working terminology that produces taxonomies related to ethno-science. Research has shown that most anthropologists have carried out studies in ethno-science based on native perceptions. This research relies on a quantitative research approach in order to gather data from a population on the general understanding of ethno-science. It can also reveal that 10 parents were involved in the research. This research is of the utmost importance to the different sectors of the industry, teachers, learners, the National Institute For Educational Development (NIED), parents and institutions of higher learning as well as for the nation that needs to produce more science specialists at all level; a society that needs technicians as well as world-class researchers in order to increase the public’s ability to engage with scientific knowledge and choices.
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    Individual agency and responsibility in African proverbial discourse
    (University of Namibia, 2016) Pongweni, Alex
    Akarumwa nechekuchera (He was bitten by what he dug up). (Shona idiom reminding that trouble may be lying deep in the earth, minding its own business, as it were. Someone takes a pick and shovel and unearths it. The person bears the responsibility for the consequences of their own action.) While proverbial lore has been the focus of much research and publication over the years, not many of those have thoroughly examined what I intend to interrogate here, namely how this lore seeks to alert us to the connection between our actions and our responsibility for them. Proverbs are as old as human existence, as can be seen in Jewish thinkers devoting a whole book of The Old Testament to them. In their introduction to that book, the editors outline the domains of life in which a knowledge and acceptance of the wisdom contained in proverbs would enable the Children of Israel to live life as God intended at the Creation. These encompass “reverence for the Lord, religious morality, good manners, self-control, humility, patience, etiquette in social relationships, loyalty to friends, respect for the poor, good manners, family relationships, business dealings, common sense”. In this paper, after analysing Shona proverbs whose messages fall into some of these categories, I conclude that, far from being conservative and authoritarian injunctions out of synch with modernity because of their alleged downplaying of, even frowning on individualism for being inimical to African communal-ism, as some Western thinkers have concluded, African proverbs carry wisdom which reminds us of the connection between individual and communal action, on the one hand, and individual and communal responsibility for creating the societies that we live in through such action, on the other; in fact, proverbial lore recognises both individualism and communalism.
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    An evaluation into why some people in Windhoek want to stay (job embeddedness) and others want to leave their jobs (turnover intention)
    (University of Namibia, 2016) Pieters, Wesley R.
    Employees’ loyalty is shifting from loyalty towards the organisation to loyalty to the dollar (pay/benefits). There is no sense of pride in their membership of a certain organisation, joy is focused on the benefits an organisation offers and what’s in it for me attitude (employee). Job embeddedness is defined as a construct that deals with a broad array of influences that represents why an employee wants to stay with a specific organisation. Turnover intention can be defined as an employee’s intention to leave his/her job within a certain period of time. When employees experience a good fit, positive links and low sacrifices in their jobs, they are less likely to leave the organisation. Participants were made of 90 (48.1%) teachers from primary schools and 97 (51.9%) legal firm employees. Female employees from legal firms experienced higher levels of turnover intention than any other group. Divorced and single employees from the legal firms experienced significantly higher levels of turnover intention with married employees experiencing the lowest levels of turnover intention. Total turnover intention recorded a negative co-relation with overall job embeddedness (r=-.29*, p < 0.05), a positive co-relation with community job embeddedness (r=.02, p < 0.05) and health care and retirement job embeddedness (r=.14*, p < 0.05). Investing in team building activities, social events for staff members, paying the best competitive salaries and benefits, retaining the more competent employees within the profession will allow the organisation to prosper. Having the best and happiest employees within the market will allow organisations to meet the top two objectives of the organisation, maintain high levels of productivity and retain the best talent.
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    Factors that cause poor performance in mathematics at National School Secondary Certificate level compared to Junior Secondary Certificate level in four selected schools in the two Kavango educational regions
    (University of Namibia, 2016) Mateya, Muhongo; Utete, Christina N.; Ilukena, Alex M.
    This paper reports on factors that cause poor performance in Mathematics at the National School Secondary Certificate (NSSC) level compared to Junior Secondary Certificate (JSC) level. A total of 200 learners in Grade 10 (2011) and 170 Grade 12 (2013) were involved in the study. These learners did Mathematics at the same school for a period of three years (2011-2013). This study employed document analysis, a technique used to gather information by reviewing and analysed documents. In this study the following documents were reviewed and analysed: The 2011 Grade 10 November examination results, and the 2013 Grade 12 November examination results, respectively. The findings of this study revealed that 2011 Grade 10 learners who obtained E-U symbols did not perform well in the Grade 12 Mathematics examinations. These findings were of utmost importance to the curriculum developers, the National Institute for Educational Development (NIED), senior education officers, the Ministry of Education, institutions of higher learning, and other stakeholders in Mathematics education.
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    Language use and the depiction of violence in pre-colonial Shona folk narratives
    (University of Namibia, 2016) Matambirofa, Francis
    Drawing illustrations chiefly from oral narratives, this article seeks to interrogate and dissect the imagining of violence in pre-colonial Shona society while paying special attention to the use of language of hatred, pain and injury therein. Language faithfully mirrors and gives away a society’s behavioural, spiritual, political, etc. construction. In view of the violence that has dogged Zimbabwe for several decades now, our point of departure is a polemical refutation of the traditionally held view that has one-sidedly idolised pre-colonial Shona society as peaceful and impliedly violence-free. While surely pre-colonial Shona society could never have been one marathon of violence, nevertheless, holding an analytical mirror to the past will reflect that the peaceful thesis does not constitute the whole truth either. The exaggerated image of a peaceful and innocent Shona society, we argue, was precipitated by a resurgent search for an African identity whose design was to reconnect with the past while countering the racist framing of blacks as a bloodthirsty lot to whose rescue the white man came. However folktales and romances, let alone pre-colonial history itself, betray, quite embarrassingly so for the one-sided view, as well as demonstrate that the Shona were not uniquely endowed with an incapacity for violence.
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    Radical acting techniques in Zimbabwean street theatre: Implications on audience criticality
    (University of Namibia, 2016) Mangosho, Tatenda; Chivandikwa, Nehemia; Mlenga, Tafadzwa
    Drawing on Brechtian and traditional African theoretical frameworks, this paper examines nonrealistic acting techniques and fluid manipulation of space in Zimbabwean street theatre as forms of radical innovations in performance aesthetics. Focus is on how these radical innovations are implicated in engendering, sustaining and stimulating an alert and critical audience.
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    Opportunity Granted or Denied: An analysis of teachers’ implementation of English Language syllabus’ learning objectives and the fate of Grade 10 ESL learners at Public Schools in Windhoek
    (University of Namibia, 2016) Lyamine, Yolana; Mlambo, Nelson
    There is growing evidence that a lack of mastery of the English language causes negative academic consequences for learners. Poor performance of learners in national examinations in some countries, including Namibia, where English is the medium of instruction, has been attributed to low proficiency in English. Studies have also shown that there is often misalignment between what is intended to be taught in the classroom, and what is actually taught. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore whether teachers implemented intended Grade 10 ESL learning objectives, specifically in terms of content coverage in their classrooms. The study used a mixed method sequential explanatory design. Quantitative data was collected by questionnaire from thirty teachers of English as Second Language (ESL) at public schools in Windhoek. For the qualitative phase of the study, four teachers were interviewed. The study revealed that teachers do not implement all the intended Grade 10 ESL learning objectives in their classrooms. This ultimately compromises learners’ opportunity to learn and attain academic success.
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    Literary perspectives of healing practices and approaches to medicine in Chinodya’s Strife
    (University of Namibia, 2016) Kandemiri, Coletta M.; Smit, Talita C.
    This paper focuses on the dilemma in which some African societies are finding themselves, as the western approach to healing is applied as if all cultural groups are homogenous throughout. This western approach is usually applied with the intention of replacing the existing indigenous healing systems that are already in place and are functional. African cultural groups, like any other cultural groups around the world, have their own approaches to diagnosis and curing of diseases. However, it appears that western approaches are overriding the African approaches, and thereby engendering problems among some of the African cultural groups whose indigenous healing systems are rooted in the spiritual world. In Africa, there are spiritual problems that require spiritual remedies hence; a western approach applied to a spiritual problem could culminate in fatality. At times, the mixing of both African and western approaches may not yield positive and visible results. Strife exposes the dilemma resulting from applying western approaches in an African cultural group and the likely out-come of such a predicament. This paper adopted the African World View Theory as the sub-theory, since the primary text, Strife, is from Africa and written from an Afrocentric perspective, by an African author. Furthermore, the article looks at differing belief systems, herbalism and the role of spiritual mediums. It was found that often a duality in the approaches to healing exists, as illustrated by the characteristics of Dunge and Hilda Dolly.
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    Analysis of factors influencing first year University Undergraduate performance in selected pure Mathematics courses at the National University of Science and Technology – Zimbabwe
    (University of Namibia, 2016) Hove, Kudakwashe; Masache, Amon; Showa, Surudzai
    In 2012, the National University of Science and Technology (NUST) in Zimbabwe reviewed the University qualification entry cut-off points downwards in the Applied Mathematics Department. Following the review, there has been a worrisome and distinct change in student performance in first year mathematics courses. To explore the possible causes of the poor performance amongst students, a two-stage probability sampling technique was used to collect secondary data covering mainly admission entry level qualification for each student. A one-way Sir Ronald Fisher’s Analysis of Variance model (ANOVA) was used to explore the contribution of various hypothesised factors to performance in first year undergraduate courses. Mathematics grade at advance level and overall performance in all subjects done at Advanced level by a student have a significant influence on his or her first year pure Mathematics courses performance at NUST. We recommend that the Department should em-ploy remedial strategies to first year pure Mathematics courses if students with low scores in advance level mathematics are to be admitted. Instead of focusing on service courses with large classes only, the Department should prioritise allocating extra tutorial hours to pure Mathematics courses. Furthermore the effects of brain drain can- not be ignored, hence the University should find ways to curb or deal with the gap that the highly experienced staff who left, created.
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    A condition assessment of the prehistoric art from the Bushman Paradise Cave, Groβe Spitzkoppe, Namibia
    (University of Namibia, 2016) Gwasira, Goodman; Katjiuongua, Geogine
    The main objective of this study was to assess the overall physical state of the prehistoric rock paintings of the Spitzkoppe. This article presents an evaluation of the condition of the rock art at the Bushman Paradise site. Ideally, a condition survey should be carried out periodically and be used as a monitoring and evaluation tool. This article is a contribution to ideas and methods that can be used to develop integrated and informed conservation strategies for rock art sites in Namibia. It identifies and classifies the causes of deterioration or damage of the rock art at the Bushman Paradise. We argue that systematic documentation is crucial for site management purposes because it is from detailed documentation that a statement of significance of sites can be generated. We conclude from the analysis that anthropogenic causes of deterioration at the Bushman Paradise outweigh natural causes. We conclude by proposing site specific conservation interventions that can be replicated at other sites of similar nature in the Spitzkoppe and Namibia in general.
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    Socio-economic impacts of tourism businesses in Okahandja: A case study of Nau-Aib
    (University of Namibia, 2016) Gariseb, Garuan L.; Mosimane, Alfons W.
    Tourism is one of the biggest and fastest growing industries in the world and its development is a major concern for developing countries. Its growth carries with it both negative and positive impacts on the local economy and the people of those countries where tourism is a significant sector. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the socio-economic influence of tourism businesses on the com-munity of Nau-Aib in Okahandja, using Edward’s (2005) socio-economic indicators. The results of a socio-economic impact assessment can inform a community about the wide scope of tourism impacts on their social and economic wellbeing. The study area of this research was Nau-Aib, one of the big-gest locations in Okahandja. Face to face interviews were conducted with 40 respondents residing in Nau-Aib. Tourism businesses, such as the arts and crafts market in Okahandja, and hospitality busi-nesses situated in the vicinity of Nau-Aib, were the focus for this study, as these businesses often en-gage in commercial activities that carry with them socio-economic impacts for adjacent communi-ties. Okahandja’s tourism sector generally employs local people. However, these jobs are mostly me-nial entry level jobs that pay employees modest salaries. Through its multiplier effect, the sector also encourages business growth in Nau-Aib, mainly in the informal sector, and induces improvements in public service utilities and infrastructural development at tourism significant areas to facilitate tour-ism activities.
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    Comparative best practices to manage corruption
    (University of Namibia, 2016) Coetzee, Johan
    During the last two decades debates about corruption and ways to contain it have acquired a new intensity and concentrated focus. There are increasing attempts to construct a global framework of best practices to manage corruption. Because corruption is a systemic challenge that needs a long-term approach to manage, it is worthwhile focusing on best practises that have proved to be the most durable (most sustainable). Such practices that demonstrate elements of systemic reform in-clude reforms in two newly industrialised and two developed countries. In all four cases there was no masterplan and reform evolved over time. Ongoing successes reinforced the momentum of change, and these successes became institutionalised in government processes and the culture of participative governance.
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    Rethinking xenophobia in the wake of human insecurity in South Africa
    (University of Namibia, 2016) Chivurugwi, Josphat
    This paper analyses the impact of xenophobic attacks which have rocked South Africa over the past few years, arguing that it has exhibited another human insecurity turning point. The traditional state-centric security conceptions that focus primarily on the safety of the state from military aggression has shifted attention to the security of the individuals. The xenophobic violence which was witnessed after South Africa attained independence in 1994, led scholars of international relations to surmise that the human security conceptual framework should advocates for a paradigm shift of attention from state security approach to a people centered approach to security. The main objective of this paper, therefore was to assess the effects of the xenophobic attacks which erupted periodically and affected the political and economic security sectors of South Africa. This paper adopted a qualitative approach and made use of documentary search, observation methods and in-depth interviews. The paper also revealed that xenophobic attacks against foreigners in South Africa had affected peaceful traditional relations which were in existence between immigrants and the citizens. This article con-cluded that peace and security in South Africa was under threat, and the African National Congress government needed to formulate new immigration laws that regulated the influx of foreigners to avoid xenophobic attacks. This study, therefore advocates for constructive engagements where both migrants and citizens participate equally in the economic sector in South Africa, as opposed to a situ-ation where foreigners dominate. These would be migratory measures to resolve the differences be-tween migrants and the citizens.
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    Gender representation in children’s literature: Limits and potential in Stephen Alumenda’s Marita goes to school and Marita’s great idea, and Jairos Kangira’s The bundle of firewood
    (University of Namibia, 2016) Chitando, Anna
    Different societies across the globe usually contrast masculinity with femininity. Men are often por-trayed in more positive terms that include being strong, achievers and providers, while women are depicted as the opposite. Such masculinities have emerged to be frameworks within which literary texts can be critiqued. In this article, I employ hegemonic and subordinate masculinities to argue that children’s stories can be utilised to transform unequal gender relations. I explore how Stephen Alu-menda and Jairos Kangira respond to gender issues in Zimbabwean children’s literature. The first sec-tion is a brief introduction that unpacks the concept of children’s literature and places the discussion of gender representation in children’s literature within the context of African literature. In the second segment, I outline how Alumenda endeavours to promote the education of the girl child. The third part highlights how this theme is advanced by Jairos Kangira, another author of children’s books.
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    Being and Nothingness: Trauma, loss and alienation in Tsitsi Dangarembga’s The Book of Not
    (University of Namibia, 2016) Chigwedere, Yuleth
    In this article, I reveal how Dangarembga’s narrative echoes Fanon’s “black skin, white masks” psy-chology. The protagonist’s internalisation of a Eurocentric view of her race and culture culminates in a profound belief in her own inferiority and that of her people. I use Laing and Fanon’s psychoanalytic theories to portray the protagonist’s struggle with her sense of identity and ontological security. I argue that the subsequent fractured sense of self she experiences affects her to such an extent that shame, guilt and self-negation dominate her mental make-up. What emerges is that the destabilising effect of the trauma of blackness results in a nullification of subjectivity - a total sense of not-being - that causes the protagonist to plummet into the depths of depression.
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    Altruism or economic expediency? A descriptive account of Namibia’s 1998 involvement in the DRC conflict
    (University of Namibia, 2016) Amupanda, Job S.
    In 1998, Namibia joined the conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), a conflict referred to by some as the most devastating war to have occurred since the Second World War, resulting in the death and displacement of millions of people. Involving about eight African countries, this war desta-bilised the region, resulting in it being referred to by many as ‘Africa’s First World War.’ During this war, extensive resources of nation states were allocated to warfare, instead of being channelled to-wards more productive and life-saving welfare and poverty alleviation programmes. For example, the United Nations (UN) estimates that the war in the DRC cost Namibia about N$700 Million. While the involvement of Namibia attracted much criticism, it failed to attract academic research of equal measure. Of the research projects conducted, few are by Namibian researchers. There has not been a coherent descriptive account of Namibia’s involvement in this conflict. This article provides a descrip-tive account of Namibia’s involvement in this conflict while exploring and examining Namibia’s mo-tive for being involved in this devastating conflict.