Affirmative action and black empowerment in tourism industry select="/dri:document/dri:meta/dri:pageMeta/dri:metadata[@element='title']/node()"/>

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dc.contributor.author Haindongo, Shikwetepo en_US
dc.date.accessioned 2014-02-07T14:07:54Z
dc.date.available 2014-02-07T14:07:54Z
dc.date.issued 2000 en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/11070/300
dc.description.abstract No abstract by author in copy of thesis available at UNAM. The following is taken from the author's introduction: en_US
dc.description.abstract Colonial legacy had ensured that all ventures that would possibly lead to the empowerment of the blacks were controlled by the whites and access to places of entertainment designated for the whites was denied the black people (Neame 1962). Subsequently, both the culture of tourism, black tourist that is, and access to the business itself by the blacks has been virtually unknown to most Africans. The few who ventured into the hospitality trade such as hotels and restaurants, like elsewhere in the developing countries where ethnic domination was a rule, were rendered un-competitive by various statutory constraints such as problems of finance and credit as well as the underdevelopment, or even the total lack of the general marketing channels (Dias1990) en_US
dc.description.abstract Similarly all top jobs where reserved for the whites while the blacks were relegated to the position of laborers and other lower paid occupations (UNESCO 1967). Subsequently after independence in 1990, the government promulgated the policy of affirmative action, which addressed the issue of employment in order to facilitate the entrance into the broader labor market by the Africans. This however, overlooked the need of equal participation in the broader realm of the national economy and thus equitable wealth - sharing by the entire populace en_US
dc.description.abstract This study has therefore analyzed policy variables that would enable the government as a custodian of the interest of all its people, to get the formerly disadvantaged people into the main stream of the national economy, with special emphasis on the tourism industry. In this regard, the study has addressed itself to the accommodation establishments and tour companies en_US
dc.description.abstract 1. 2 Research Problem: The term affirmative action, or even more so, black economic empowerment, evokes deep emotions amongst the multidimensional society of the equally socio- economic imbalanced Namibia. The reaction to and the interpretation of the term affirmative action is as diverse as the social, cultural and political diversity ofthe country. To the white oriented political parties and to the majority of the whitesection of the populace, affirmative action is "wanton redistribution of wealth, relentless black empowerment and persistent reverse discrimination and nepotism" (Namibian Views: 1992:14). On the other hand, the SWAPO Party that reflects the majority views of the Namibian citizenry, describes affirmative action as " a genuine and sober desire to create lasting harmony, peace and tranquility for all our people, bring about change in ownership relations and equitable distribution of national income" (Namibian Views 1992:18) en_US
dc.description.abstract Economic disparities between white and black sections of the populace are believed to be the highest in Africa. The richest 10 percent of the society earn an average income fifty times as much as that of the poorest half. Half the country's population survives on a per capita income, which is 10 percent of the country's average per capital of US$1984 and 5 percent of the country's population own most private enterprises and enjoy incomes more than five times the average of US$ 1984 per capita. And most of these are whites (Spring 2000) en_US
dc.description.abstract While government is charged with the task of safeguarding the constitutionally entrenched rights to ownership of property, it can ill-afford to allow monopoly of ownership of common goods. It cannot afford to allow 5 percent of the populace to continue monopolizing collectively owned natural resources at the risk of the constantly widening gap between economic empowerment and economic despair. Subsequently the government entrenched in the national constitution the policy of affirmative action as a mechanism for bridging the gap between the prosperous whites and the impoverished blacks. The policy has however, failed to reduce economic disparities in the tourism industry en_US
dc.description.abstract As hypothised below the problem of ineffectiveness of the policy of affirmative in the tourism industry is found to be attributed to the limited competence of the implementing agencies. This study had geared itself to analyse the policy process and provide a set of objectives and recommendations as to how such objectives can be achieved en_US
dc.description.abstract 1. 3 Research Objectives: The objectives of this study could be summed up as follow; (a) To contribute to the wider understanding of the concept of affirmative action and black empowerment (b) To identify constraints to the process of the formulation and implementation of affirmative action policy in the tourism industry (c) To provide viable recommendations for effective implementation of the policy of affirmative action with emphasis on the tourism sector (d) To determine the degree of black participation in the. ownership and management of conservancy ventures (e) To identify constraints for possible improvement of the conservancy policy....In the process of the actual research, the following questions formed the main focus: (a) What is the government policy regarding affirmative action and empowerment in the accommodation establishments and tour companies? (b) What regulating tools are in place to ensure equitable wealth sharing in the accommodation establishments and tour companies? (c) What are the problems of policy implementation in the tourism industry? (d) What incentives are in place for established groups to give access to blackparticipation in the industry? (e) What are the government monitoring mechanisms?1. 7 Limitations. Due to ill health... I have not been able to interview the head of the Directorate of Environmental Affairs (DEA) to obtain his views regarding the assertions of [names] on the role of the DEA in the formulation of the conservancy policy and its original objectives, which they said was designed to facilitate land grabbing by the whites under the pretext of joint ventures with the rural blacks. This was however, to be supported by the majority of his senior colleagues in the Ministry in their unanimous views that loopholes in the implementation process did indeed facilitate what amounts to land grabbing by the whites en_US
dc.format.extent 62 p en_US
dc.language.iso eng en_US
dc.subject Tourism en_US
dc.subject Conservancies en_US
dc.subject Black economic empowerment en_US
dc.title Affirmative action and black empowerment in tourism industry en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US
dc.identifier.isis F004-199299999999999 en_US
dc.description.degree Windhoek en_US
dc.description.degree Namibia en_US
dc.description.degree University of Namibia en_US
dc.description.degree Master in Public Policy and Administration en_US
dc.masterFileNumber 2961 en_US


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