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dc.contributor.advisor Kaapama, Phanuael en_US
dc.contributor.author Sinvula, Morris S. en_US
dc.date.accessioned 2014-02-07T14:07:55Z
dc.date.available 2014-02-07T14:07:55Z
dc.date.issued 2005 en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/11070/311
dc.description.abstract en_US
dc.description.abstract The objective of this study is to systematically evaluate both the pre and post independence local governance framework and structures. The study will thus, highlight the political,developmental and philosophical differences between the post-independent policy of decentralisation in Namibia and the pre-independence policy of Bantustans. This will be realised by evaluating public perceptions on decentralisation vis-à-vis Bantustans; as well as by investigating the general impact of associating or equating the policy of decentralisation to that of Bantustans, on the implementation and realisation of the former en_US
dc.description.abstract It is a well-known fact that the motivations for pursuing decentralisation differ from one country to another. Likewise, people and countries define decentralisation differently and connote different things to them. To that end, decentralisation in Namibia entails the process of delegation and devolution of functions, powers, responsibilities and resources from central government to regional councils and local authorities within the framework of a unitary state. Its implementation is guided by the principle that functions follow funds and personnel. The motivation for decentralisation in Namibia is two fold, namely, (a) the government's willingness to democratise and remedy the un-democratic and discriminatory historical form of governance before independence and (b) decentralisation is primarily seen as an instrument or tool to promote and guarantee democracy and sustainable development. Therefore, the objectives of decentralisation in Namibia center on democracy, development, empowerment, good governance and administration, enhancement of accountability and promotion of local economic development en_US
dc.description.abstract To ensure effective implementation of the decentralisation policy government has enacted enabling legislations such as the Constitution of the Republic of Namibia, 1990, Regional Councils Act, 1992, Local Authorities Act, 1992, Decentralization Policy of 1997, Decentralisation Enabling Act 2000, Trust Fund for Regional Development and Equity Provisions Act 2000, and Traditional Authorities Act, 2000 en_US
dc.description.abstract In contrast the pre-independence Bantustanisation in the form of decentralisation was motivated by completely different philosophies and political underpinnings. This was in the sense that it was based on ethnically or tribally divided communal areas or geo-political units defined on the basis of assumed cultural, political, socio-economic and ethnic differences. The Bantustan Policy evolved first in South Africa through the Apartheid Policy of 1948 and Group Areas Act, of 1950 and 1986. Later the same policy was transplanted to South West Africa/Namibia through the Odendaal Plan, and was consolidated by Proclamation Administrator General 8/1980. The Bantustan Policy was primarily intended for pseudo self-determination based on ethnic and racial grounds, the marginalisation of the indigenous populations and political segregation aimed at divide and rule. Most importantly, it advocated "Separate Development" or geographical isolation of the non-white groups into separate homelands based on colour and race criteria en_US
dc.description.abstract This study revealed that the fears expressed by Honorable Nahas Angula that the present decentralisation plans may revive Bantustans, were not necessarily his alone, but were shared by many within the SWAPO leadership. These views were intensively debated during the drafting of the National Constitution in the Constituent Assembly. The idea has been lingering in many people's minds ever since en_US
dc.description.abstract Similarly, this study noted that decentralisation and Bantustans have three common denominators in terms of their advocacy for self-governance: encouragement of participatory decision-making at regional and local levels, and transference of power and resources from central government to sub-national governments. Bantustans were a form of decentralisation with a different focus. For example Bantustans were assigned responsibilities, budgets and power by central government to administer on behalf of their communities as they deemed appropriate. They had their own legislative assemblies and executive committees for policy formulation en_US
dc.description.abstract On the contrary, this study also revealed that there are major differences in the political and philosophical orientation of the two policies in terms of their respective ideologies, philosophies and objectives, governance, government's legitimacy, legal frameworks, structures, focus and approaches, federal/unitary of the state, representation, benefits, freedom and rights, functioning/operations, accountability, accessibility and government's financial support. Moreover it was observed that Bantustans put emphasis on decentralisation of tribal identity and symbols rather than on service delivery, democracy and development en_US
dc.description.abstract The association or equation of decentralisation to Bantustans could hold serious and negative consequences for the decentralisation implementation process, namely, it could delay the process. People will be hesitant to accept the process and acknowledge that there is freedom in the country, abuse of decentralised resources, disassociation and resistance of people to embrace the process, loss of accountability, and that could not lead to needed commitment and involvement of people and consequently failure of decentralization. Government will be reluctant to devolve power; and it would be costly to convince people to support the process of decentralisation. Decentralisation is meant to empower the rural and grassroots people so that they can own, participate in and sustain the decentralisation process. If this does not happen, the decentralisation process will be a failure en_US
dc.description.abstract Finally, the decentralisation implementation process was observed to be vulnerable to hijacking to promote ethnicity through the recruitment of fellow tribesmen at sub-national government level by both the technocrats and politicians of the dominant tribe. Therefore, it is recommended that guidelines on ethnic balance, or a policy on Affirmative Action based on ethnic balance, could be instituted in the public service; and frameworks for implementation and proper management of the decentralisation implementation process be developed by the Ministry of Regional and Local Government and Housing, Public Service Commission and/or Office of the Prime Minister to avoid perpetuation or a repeat of ethnic discrimination and division through the post independence decentralisation policy. en_US
dc.description.abstract The objective of this study is to systematically evaluate both the pre and post independence local governance framework and structures. The study will thus, highlight the political, developmental and philosophical differences between the post-independent policy of decentralisation in Namibia and the pre-independence policy of Bantustans. This will be realised by evaluating public perceptions on decentralisation vis-à-vis Bantustans; as well as by investigating the general impact of associating or equating the policy of decentralisation to that of Bantustans, on the implementation and realisation of the former en_US
dc.description.abstract It is a well-known fact that the motivations for pursuing decentralisation differ from one country to another. Likewise, people and countries define decentralisation differently and connote different things to them. To that end, decentralisation in Namibia entails the process of delegation and devolution of functions, powers, responsibilities and resources from central government to regional councils and local authorities within the framework of a unitary state. Its implementation is guided by the principle that functions follow funds and personnel. The motivation for decentralisation in Namibia is two fold, namely, (a) the government's willingness to democratise and remedy the un-democratic and discriminatory historical form of governance before independence and (b) decentralisation is primarily seen as an instrument or tool to promote and guarantee democracy and sustainable development. Therefore, the objectives of decentralisation in Namibia center on democracy, development, empowerment, good governance and administration, enhancement of accountability and promotion of local economic development en_US
dc.description.abstract The association or equation of decentralisation to Bantustans could hold serious and negative consequences for the decentralisation implementation process, namely, it could delay the process. People will be hesitant to accept the process and acknowledge that there is freedom in the country, abuse of decentralised resources, disassociation and resistance of people to embrace the process, loss of accountability, and that could not lead to needed commitment and involvement of people and consequently failure of decentralization. Government will be reluctant to devolve power; and it would be costly to convince people to support the process of decentralisation. Decentralisation is meant to empower the rural and grassroots people so that they can own, participate in and sustain the decentralisation process. If this does not happen, the decentralisation process will be a failure en_US
dc.format.extent xiii, 121 leaves en_US
dc.format.extent ill en_US
dc.language.iso eng en_US
dc.subject Decentralization en_US
dc.title From Bantustanisation to decentralisation en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US
dc.identifier.isis F004-20060710 en_US
dc.description.degree Windhoek en_US
dc.description.degree Namibia en_US
dc.description.degree University of Namibia en_US
dc.description.degree Thesis (Master of Public Administration) en_US
dc.masterFileNumber 3133 en_US


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