An analysis of the socio-economic security challenges of urbanisation on the livelihood of the residents of Havana and Greenwell Matongo informal settlements of Windhoek, Namibia

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University of Namibia
The rural-urban migrations of the residents from the Havana and Greenwell Matongo informal settlements, to Windhoek, pose socio-economic challenges of urbanisation. These challenges are various security challenges such as unemployment, poverty, crime and the negative effect on the environment. Therefore, it is important to recognise that migration, in excess, is both a symptom of national security threats and instability. Understanding the causes, determinants, and consequences these security challenges pose, as a result of rural-urban migration, is important in formulating socio-economic wellbeing policies and strategies to curb human and environmental insecurity. These strategies shall to alter the pattern of environmental security and socio-economic security challenges such as land pollution, environmental protection, equal income distribution and control of population growth. It is crucial to note that these security challenges can be addressed by formulating socio-economic policy strategies that will address the income disparities between rural and urban residents which, will directly or indirectly, influence the migration process. The security challenges are analysed based on urban management such as citizens’ participation in the mainstream economy, good governance, access to urban infrastructure and services such as drainage system, water reticulation system, electricity supply, road networks, access to education and training, access to health facilities and access to decent housing. The impetus of the analysis further focuses on other social ills or human insecurities such as prostitution, alcohol and drug abuse, and the escalation of land grabbing. The combination of these socio-economic security challenges are all the products of urbanisation and have to be addressed urgently. Todaro and Smith (2012) rural-urban migration model theory was employed to understand the rural-urban migratory trends.
A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the Master of Arts in Security and Strategic Studies
Security challenges, Urbanisation, Livelohood, Havana, Greenwell Matongo