Supply of water in urban cities of Namibia: The case of Windhoek

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University of Namibia
The study seeks to examine the interface between the urban expansion and the water supply and demand in Windhoek. Against this background, the study elaborates prospects relating to the provision and supply of water to the capital. The city's population is estimated at 300 000 inhabitants (Windhoek Urbanization Report 2001/2002), experiencing an annually population growth rate of 4.4 % and urbanization rate of 4.4%. The arid climate, the low precipitation per year, the enormous evaporation rate (on average 30% of surface water) and the rural urban migration makes it a difficult task to supply water to the city. This study employs secondary research methods, including the economic approach of demand and supply applied in the market theory of economics. This is complemented by data relating to water supply, consumption, population growth and water supply policy including case study findings from Botswana and Mozambique. This study has not only focused on the water supply and distribution situation in Windhoek but also creates an opportunity for academic intervention, creating a policy scenario that might serve as a basis for policy review and formulation. This study found that a positive relationship exists between water supply and urban expansion. This relationship is cemented by the analysis of the trend observed between population growth, water demand, consumption and supply. It is evident in this study that the three indicators mentioned above are positively linked. In order to upset the trend observed, a number of policy alternatives have to be applied in order to strike the balance between water supply and urbanization as a function of population growth.
A research paper submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Public Policy and Administration
Supply of water in Namibia, Water demand in Namibia, Windhoek population growth