Issue 2 (JULACE Vol. 2)

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    Three poems
    (University of Namibia, 2017) Simwanza, Shane Simasiku
    I decided to use Silozi language in writing my poetry firstly to promote it countrywide and possibly to take it to another level whenever possible. It is a language that I can easily and best express all my deep thoughts and emotions on the topics that I have chosen to explain everything clearly. Also I was driven to write in Silozi due to limited writings in this language from our local writers. My main purpose is to communicate easily with general readers, but also with learners in schools, who are doing this language as a subject. I believe that, through this process such learners will have a better understanding of life and different issues that they may encounter on their way up to tertiary and university levels of learning.
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    Namibian multilingualism and sustainable development
    (University of Namibia, 2017) Simataa, Agnes A.; Simataa, Evans
    This position paper provides a critical discussion on the significance of indigenous languages in development in Namibia. The importance of the relationship between language and society is unquestionable as language in general allows communication to take place in society. The premise of this line of reasoning is to argue that though multilingualism may provide a challenging linguistic scenario for a country like Namibia which has a fragmented population running across different ethnic groups, the role of native languages in economic and social development should not be ignored as native languages can perpetuate sustainable development. This paper used qualitative content analysis, employing a desktop examination of secondary sources that pertain to language and economic development. As a desktop study, the data was collected through critical reading and analysis of language and development literature.
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    The use of mother tongue in public services in Namibia: A short thinking piece
    (University of Namibia, 2017) Senkoro, Fikeni E.; Simasiku, Liswani
    The history of policies that include the use of mother tongue in public services in Namibia goes back to as far as the period immediately after Independence. Among such policy documents is Chapter 1 Article 3 of The Constitution of the Republic of Namibia that deals specifically with Language. In this article English is declared to be the official language of Namibia. It is further stated in Sub-Article (2) that: Nothing contained in this Constitution shall prohibit the use of any other language as a medium of instruction in private schools or in schools financed or subsidized by the State, subject to compliance with such requirements as may be imposed by law, to ensure proficiency in the official language, or for pedagogic reasons.
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    Language Skills for Higher Education in Tanzania
    (University of Namibia, 2017) Rugemalira, Josephat
    This paper argues that there are two radical policy options available to the higher education establishment in Tanzania with regard to the issue of the language medium of instruction. The first option requires the establishment of a strict filtering mechanism in order to exclude all applicants who do not possess the English language skills required in an English medium university. The second option seeks to develop a bilingual language policy for higher education. This would allow partial use of Kiswahili in the system e.g. in lectures, seminar discussions and examinations, even while most literature has to be accessed in English. The paper presents an account of the conditions that call for such a radical departure from current practice, showing that the much utilized ‘University of Dar es Salaam Model’ of Communications Skills courses has not had the expected impact.
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    Minimizing academic English lexicon gap between English first language students and English second language students
    (University of Namibia, 2017) Mukoroli, Joseph Namutungika
    Vocabulary, much more than grammar, is the key to any learner to understand what she/he hears and reads in school; and to communicate successfully with other people. For this reason it is very important for a learner to quickly build up a large store of words. Research studies have shown the strong links between having an extensive vocabulary and achieving school success. Lewis (1993) states that “Lexis the core or heart of language”. As English Second Language students develop greater fluency in English it is significant for them to acquire more productive academic vocabulary knowledge and to develop their own personal vocabulary learning strategies. This conceptual paper aims to highlight the academic lexicon gap between English First Language students and ESL students. Moreover, it defines what academic vocabulary is and how vocabulary is learned. Finally it provides effective vocabulary teaching strategies that could be employed in the ESL classroom in order to minimize the lexicon gap between English first language students and ESL students.
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    Spirit medium language mediation: A neglected form of interpreting?
    (University of Namibia, 2017) Mpemba, Titus
    While the need for interpreting has been growing as can be evidenced by intensification of research on interpreting and establishment and expansion of interpreting institutions and course programmes worldwide, the interpreting research landscape has been devoid of insightful research on African indigenous forms of interpreting. Using the Bhasukuma1 spirit medium transcendental language mediation (henceforth TLM) as a case study, the present paper examines interpreting definitional criteria in a bid to make a comparison with TLM features and determine what the comparison may reveal with regard to the relationship between interpreting and TLM. To achieve this objective, the researcher used literature research to glean the criteria used by previous interpreting scholars to define the concept interpreting, after which the criteria were used as an observation schedule for fieldwork observations. Results indicate that TLM exhibits all of the criteria used in defining interpreting. The present paper, therefore, concludes that the Bhasukuma spirit medium TLM is an indigenous form of interpreting, to which people have not been exposed and recommends that African scholars should take the responsibility of educating and re-educating the world about their unknown realities to better the understanding of the same.
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    The Arabic stimulus to the Swahili language: A post-colonial balance sheet
    (University of Namibia, 2017) Mazrui, Alamin
    It is generally accepted that Arabic has had a major impact on the growth of the Swahili language over the centuries. The meaning of this linguistic stimulus of Arabic, however, has been a matter of far lesser consensus in both the colonial and postcolonial dispensations. Does the Semitic influence reduce Swahili’s African credentials, and does it amount to some degree of linguistic Islamization? If so, is the development an argument in favor of or against Swahili in relation to its role as a language of Christianity and, later of national belonging and expression? And can one be anti-Arab and anti- Islam but pro-Swahili at the same time without having to dis-Arabize Swahili? These are some of the central questions addressed in this article, reflecting conflicting positions of various interest groups, even as Swahili’s own momentum and dynamism have increasingly neutralized the contestation over its identity.
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    The nature and origin of acronyms in Kiswahili and Setswana
    (University of Namibia, 2017) Matlhaku, K.; Batibo, H.M.
    This study examines how this mechanism has been used in two major regional languages, namely Kiswahili, spoken in eastern Africa, and Setswana, extensively used in southern Africa. The main aim of the article is to investigate how these two regional languages have dealt with the influx of acronyms which have become important word forms in African languages, as the use of these languages expands to higher domains. The study uses primary and secondary data to demonstrate the efforts which have been made in the development of acronyms in both languages, and the challenges which have been experienced. The study findings are very revealing in that they show that, although most African dictionaries do not include acronyms as part of their entries, they are found most often in the higher domains and appear in many forms. The main conclusion of the paper is that African countries need full-fledged language institutions and supportive language policies in order to spearhead the process of lexical expansion and intellectualization of the indigenous African languages by using all strategies of term development.
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    The jigsaw method: The use of cooperative learning in a grade 7 English second language lessons – a Namibia school case study
    (University of Namibia, 2017) Hautemo, Aletta Mweneni
    This paper reports on the use of cooperative learning technique – Jigsaw - that describes the use of small groups to enable learners to increase their own responsibility in learning and that of their peers. As a strategy that support Learner Centred Education which was adopted as a framework for teaching and learning in Namibia in 1990, cooperative learning is very compatible to Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) which are both highlighted in the new basic education national curriculum as strategies for teaching languages in Namibian schools. To develop responsive practices to the learner-centred approach this study investigates the role of cooperative learning activities in learning English second language and the influence it has on teaching and assessing learners. An expansive route was taken to engage learners in a Jigsaw activity, in an English Second Language lesson. The findings revealed that participants of the study perceived cooperative learning instructional to be generally a positive experiences which provide an effective method of learning in groups and it enhance learners’ achievement. Cooperative learning may help learners to acquire and develop four language skills at the same time and with easy as concepts are interlinked. Learners in the jigsaw classroom reported stronger intrinsic motivation, greater interest in the topic, and more cognitive activation and involvement.
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    Usanifishaji wa Kiswahili Afrika Mashariki: Changamoto na namna ya kukabiliana nazo
    (University of Namibia, 2017) Hans, Mussa M.
    The process of standardizing Kiswahili language started before East African countries attained independence. Despite adopting different objectives and methods, the process has been ongoing even after independence of the East African countries. When discussing this process, it is of paramount importance to take into consideration the growth of terminologies, especially scientific and technological terms, which are created almost on a daily basis. It is also important to take cognizance of an increase in the number of universities in this region in which Kiswahili is one of the subjects studied by many students. Taking into consideration the fact that Kiswahili is the medium of the subject’s instructions these universities, students need sufficient textbooks and reference books written in Kiswahili, among other things. As such, East African Community member states need standard terms in various sectors, including research. This being the case, it is important to carefully coordinate the process of standardizing Kiswahili terms for use in various domains of the East African Community. The main objective of this article, therefore, is to examine the challenges of standardizing Kiswahili in the new East African Community. The article also provides recommendations on what can be done best to facilitate effective use of Kiswahili language among East African Community member states.