Issue 1 (JSHSS Vol.1)

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    Theorising the environment in fiction: An ecocritical reading of Jairos Kangira’s The bundle of firewood
    (University of Namibia, 2012) Pasi, Juliet S.
    Western perceptions of the African continent as a forest or ‘site of death’ can be traced to as far back as Joseph Conrad’s Heart of darkness. Post-colonial readings of this text exude a literary paradigm shift that has seen African writers attempt to valourise the African forest as a possible site of development. This ecological oriented criticism (ecocriticism) has emerged as one of the fresh ways of celebrating the environment as the fi gurative site upon which human regeneration is likely to occur. The environment becomes a response to the urgent mundane socio-economic issues and provokes readers to interrogate them. In discussing Kangira’s The bundle of firewood, this paper will analyse how these texts use the environment as a narratology to deconstruct the rigid divisions that typify girlhood stereotypes; seeing these not as monolithic, but as permeable and interchangeable. Thus, celebrating the environment is a way of shifting the centre; of giving agency to silent issues and silenced subjects. It becomes a powerful metaphor in terms of the self’s constant quest for definition in a society whose social sexual matrix it (the self) transgresses. The paper reflects on the ramifications of such transgressive politics. It argues that ecocriticism plays a significant role in creating and steering ideologies around a renegotiation of relationships. The paper concludes that the environment is metonymic of so many things; in this context, the politics of exclusivism, and the self’s radicalisation and involvement in a limitless re-fashioning.
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    Rethinking the poetics of urban informalities in fiction: Reconstructing the city space in times of crisis
    (University of Namibia, 2012) Mlambo, Nelson
    This paper considers ways of reading and theorising urbanity and the urbanites’ coping strategies for survival. The prime motivation is to demonstrate their apt capacity to transform the urban space and utilise it to better their lives. Using resilience theory and focusing on the profundity of agency, the paper takes literature, particularly the short story set in urban Zimbabwe during the crisis of the past decade to focus on the characters as actors with the capacity to innovate and respond to difficulty with ingenuity through urban informalities; strengths we can all learn from.
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    Overcoming the barriers through literal and descriptive translations: Examples of Kanga names
    (University of Namibia, 2012) Malangwa, Pendo S.
    Kanga names are presented using Swahili pithy sayings, riddles and proverbs. The names communicate the culture and philosophy of the Swahili people, especially those dwelling along the coast of the Indian Ocean, their perceptions on women and the way women view themselves. There are attempts to translate these texts from Kiswahili into English for various reasons. Since the texts are cultivated in the Swahili culture and philosophy, establishing equivalents in English is a major challenge. Translators of such texts apply some techniques to achieve their objectives. This paper appreciates the application of literal and descriptive translations in translating these cultural expressions.
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    A cognitive grammatical approach to the semantics of Nambya extended verbs
    (University of Namibia, 2012) Chabata, Emmanuel
    This article is an analysis of the meanings of extended verbs in Nambya. Put simply, an extended verb is a complex verb that is a consequence of combining a verb base and a verbal extension. Using the principles adopted in the theory of Cognitive Grammar (CG), it will be argued that the addition of different kinds of verbal extensions to verb bases often result in constructions with multiple meanings that are related. Unlike earlier scholarship on the meanings of extended verbs in Nambya that treats them as a result of a simple mathematical addition of the individual meanings of the verb base and the verbal extension, this article aims to show that the addition of derivational morphemes such as verbal extensions onto verb bases significantly modifies the meanings of the respective base forms. It is argued that the addition of the verbal extensions often results in two kinds of related meanings, that is, those that are mathematically derivable from the verb base by composition and those that are not easily traceable owing to the fact that they are generally idiosyncratic - hence the reason why extended verbs should sometimes be treated as new verbs that are different from their bases. In this regard, therefore, the proposal being made is that verbal extensions should be treated as highly productive morphemes in lexeme formation
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    Issues in ethnomusicology as human science
    (University of Namibia, 2012) Tsoubaloko, Francois Haipinge
    The elements that constitute the topic of this paper are extracted from my newly finished book rn Ethnomusrcology. Namibra as a country is not only made of geographical boundaries with other countries, located in the African continent map, but perhaps it is made most by what it contains inside forming the National cultural Heritage, from which we get our cultural identity as a nation in diversity, that we should cherish much. These are the languages we speak, the way we dress (Outfit), the way we sing and dance, traditional architecture, manufacturing, ritual on traditional marriage, traditional healings, labour (cultivation and harvest), beverage and dishes. Most of these features in traditional societies are declining because of the contemporary daily life in which we found ourselves. The attitudinal, archetypal, moulding vision and anxiety of the Indigenous elderly people in the rural life, is to see continuity being assumed or secured of the above mentioned features, seen by young people in Namibia as things of the past life, archaic, childish and non-sense. These young people have their mind set on foreign horizons. This is also expressed on music, In such way that since Independence almost nobody came up with a creation of contemporary music style based on the Namibian traditional music. All music performed In the country is based on foreign genres such as Kwaito, R&B, Reggae, Kwasa· kwasa, kizomba, etc. Finally the paper also deals with the desire people have developed in promoting arts in Its diverse forms within the eco-tourism Industry, to alleviate the living conditions of the indigenous people in the rural areas. There are two sides of the coin to be considered in that: the good and bad aspects In doing the promotion of arts in this environment.
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    Waking the dead: Civilian casualties in the Namibian liberation struggle
    (University of Namibia, 2012) Akawa, Martha; Silvester, Jeremy
    The liberation Struggle is marked by an absence of archival sources. This absence leads to an impossibility of systematic historical analysis of conflicting archival evidence; as a result, history is created with a broad brush on a monumental landscape. In terms of public history, the emphasis has been placed on the memory of the soldiers who died fighting in the liberation struggle. A post-war publication has listed their names, although those who died on Namibian soil remain buried in anonymous graves. The internet provides a virtual graveyard, which attempts to unite all those who died on the South African side during their "Border War'. Such lists suggest that the compilers have been able to enter inaccessible archives and/or contact knowledgeable informants. Yet many of the soldiers who died, on both sides, during the Namibian liberation Struggle died in Southern Angola and the community memory of the war in Namibia is more closely linked to the many incidents in which civilians were killed inside Namibia during the conflict. In Namibia, almost a generation after the end of the war, it remains unknown how many Namibian civilians died during the Namibian Liberation Struggle. Where estimates are provided, the victims are reduced to nameless numbers. The absence of a consolidated archival record of these deaths means that an important dimension of the war remains hidden. This article will present the work that has been done to create an archive of Civilian Casualties of the Namibian liberation Struggle and discuss some of the challenges and difficulties associated with the project. It will argue that combining a range of sources into a new collection of consolidated information on individual deaths can challenge one of the archival absences on the liberation struggle and shape the historiography of the Namibian liberation struggle that is being created by a new generation of Namibian historians.
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    School libraries and their role in promoting a reading culture: Case study of Caprivi, Omusati, Omaheke, Karas and Khomas regions of Namibia
    (University of Namibia, 2012) Nengomasha, Cathrine T.; Uutoni, Wilhelm; Yule, Wilson
    The importance of school libraries cannot be overemphasized. This paper is based on a study on school libraries in Namibia which was conducted by the University of Namibia, Department of Information and Communication Studies from July 2009 to February 2010. The study covered five of Namibia's thirteen regions, namely Caprivi, Omusati, Omaheke, Karas and Khomas. The study employed a qualitative and quantitative research design using a triangulation of data collection methods including surveys, interviews, focus group discussions, and observation. Some of the questions the study aimed to answer were, "What is the state of school libraries?" and "What is their role in promoting a reading culture in Namibia?" The World Bank (2008, p. xxi) describes how effective school libraries can be as "they provide additional reading opportunities for students, which in turn improve reading skills, comprehension and writing clarity of expressions, which in turn support student performance in all other curriculum subjects. Although the study showed the existence of libraries in all the schools; more than Bo per cent of these were not adequately resourced in terms of reading materials, equipment, and stafj1ng. The study also established that although learners said that they liked reading there was no strong library programme to inculcate a reading culture in the learners. A number of other factors can contribute to a good or bad reading culture. These include the language of instruction and home/family environment. In Namibia, a 2011 report of the education system audit notes that proficiency in English, the language of instruction is below basic. The study concluded that the majority of school libraries in Namibia are not in a position to provide the benefits described by the Word Bank above. This is evidenced by the fact that there is a high failure rate in Namibian schools. The small percentage of schools with libraries that were well run happened to have a good pass rate but in these cases the libraries were also adequately resourced, equipped and staffed.
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    Praiseworthy values in President Hifikepunye Pohamba's epideictic speech marking Namibia's 20th anniversary of independence
    (University of Namibia, 2012) Kangira, Jairos
    This paper provides a rhetorical analysis of President l-lejlkepunye Pohamba's inaugural speech which he delivered when sworn in for his second term of office on 21 March 2010, the 2oth anniversary of Namibia's Independence. In our analysis we unravel the praiseworthy values contained in the speech and we also look at the unsaid or implied messages which we label subtleties. By using careful!y chosen words and phrases, Pobamba's speech promoted democracy, peace, unity, dignity, accountability, transparency, honesty, patriotism and the rule of low in Q nation of diverse cultures. As is the practice in speech communication, Pohamba used Aristotle's three proofs of rhetoric, namely, pathos, ethos and logos in his ceremonial speech, to persuade the audience to identify with his goals. Identification and con.substantiality play a crucial role in rhetoric. Speakers employ identification and consubstantiality in their speeches in order to influence the audience to view things the way they (speakers) see them. We also demonstrate that a speech never comes in isolation or alone; the Speaker traced the past and present, and gave a glimpse of the future of the country. Throughout the speech we see a pious President who subscribes to the democratic value of turn-taking of the Presidency as he openly stated that this was his second and last term as President of the RepubHc of Namibia.
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    Phytochemical investigation on Namibian plants for anti-malaria compounds
    (University of Namibia, 2012) Du Preez, Iwanette C.; Mumbengegwi, Davis R.
    Malaria is on the decline in Namibia due to interventions by the Ministry of Health and Social Services (MoHSS) and the country is moving towards pre-elimination of the disease. However, barriers such as resistance of the uptake of interventions by "at risk" communities, e.g. lack of treatment seeking behavior for WHO recommended ACT's exist. Some communities in malaria-endemic areas do not accept Western medicine, preferring traditional medicines as prescribed by traditional healers. It is important to balance people's cultural beliefs and practices with the MoHSS's objective of malaria elimination by 2020. To facilitate integration of traditional treatments into mainstream malaria case management, documentation and validation of the treatments to allow their safe and effective use have to be carried out. This study was conducted to document and validate the use of seven plants native to Namibia, targeted on the basis of their indigenous uses which suggest their toxicity to Plasmodium parasites. Crude extracts were prepared using methanol-dichloromethane (1/1V/V) and distilled water at 60 C. The extracts were further Partitioned with chloroform-methanol water (12/6/lV/V). Preliminary phytochemical screening was performed to detect the presence of selected Antiplasmodial compounds. Phytochemical tests revealed the presence of anthraquinones, flavonoids, terpenoids, coumarines, and glycosides; alkaloids and steroids were not detected. Paradoxically, thin-layer chromatography analysis on the crude extracts of the same plants tested positive for all compounds. The presence of these phytochemicals and the data generated support the ethno-medicinal uses for these plants
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    Inequalities of nutrition: The Namibian paradox
    (University of Namibia, 2012) Misihairabgwi, Jane M.; Rennie, Timothy
    The paradoxical coexistence of obesity with undernutrition has been we!l documented worldwide. In many developing countries, 6o % of households contain both underweight and obese individuals, a situation referred to as the "dual burden household". The Namibian population is simultaneously made up of groups of overweight and obese individuals as well as a large group of underweight individuals. Based on data collected from 2003 to 2004, 28 % of Namlbians were categorized as underweight, 11 % as overweight and 7 % as obese. Among adults, aged 30-46, 29% were categorized as overweight or obese. In a middle-income country such as Namibia, food scarcity may no longer be the driving factor behind energy intake. Instead, the availability of cheap, energy dense foods may facilitate the consumption of more calories whiJe an indoor, sedentary lifestyle would further reduce the average daily energy expenditure. Specific cultural perceptions may also encourage obesity. The 'double burden' of disease that has been created threatens to overwhelm the health services in Namibia. In this paper, we document reports on nutritional inequality internationally, and in Namibia specifically, and propose a research strategy to address the burden of the coexistence of under nutrition and obesity in Namibia. The paper documents a useful starting point for understanding the determinants of inequalities in nutritional status and provides some understanding of the causes of inequalities in nutritional status as well as the factors responsible for inequalities in health and nutritional status of individuals.
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    The developement of tourism entrepreneurial activities in Namibia
    (University of Namibia, 2012) Kimaro, Mary-Ellen; Ihuha, Rosemary; Angula, Margaret
    For decades entrepreneurship has been recognised as an important contributor to economic growth and development. The purpose of this paper is to examine the tourism entrepreneurial activities in Namibia and assess their potential to contribute to the economy. The main objective is to analyse the development process of tourism entrepreneurial activities in general and their current weaknesses, opportunities and threats as experienced by entrepreneurs in Windhoek and Okahandja. With the high unemployment rate being experienced in Namibia, a solution to this social problem is needed to help alleviate the plight of the unemployed and underemployed. The results of the survey provide insight into the entrepreneurial operations, and the challenges thereof. The results show that tourism entrepreneurs are potential employers in Namibia. The majority of products and services offered are not locally produced, opening an opportunity for entrepreneurs to diversify the offering and increase their market share by offering services and products such as traditional meals, clothing and jewellery. The study concludes that there are benefits for potential entrepreneurs to operate their own businesses. However, some shortcomings were noted that include lack of training and lack of awareness of available and affordable training programmes as well as other common and unique problems faced by these entrepreneurs. The study concludes that measures should be taken to ensure that entrepreneurs are nurtured and mentored in order to realise their business success. Furthermore, the study recommends a number of measures to improve the status quo of entrepreneurs and facilitate growth within the tourism entrepreneurial activities.
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    Conventional and novel/creative metaphors: Do differing cultural environments affect parsing in a second language?
    (University of Namibia, 2012) Smit, Talita C.
    Metaphors can be regarded as systemic interrelations of multiple experiences which map one relatively stable domain to another. A number of cognitive linguists, such as KOvecses (2005) and Lakoff (2006), suggest that much metaphorical thinking arises from recurring patterns of physical experiences and sensori-motor interactions with the physical world. Gibbs (1999, p. 152) furthermore states that "people clearly a/so learn conceptual metaphors from their experiences with language." Research findings indicate that the default interpretations by First Language speakers were octuol/y the idiomCltic understandings, not the literal ones. The question could be asked whether this would be the case with Second Language speakers when drawing inferences from metaphorical expressions used by first language speakers, and specifically in the case of novel/creative metaphorical expressions.I assumed that this process might pose difficulties for ESl readers from an African environment when reading a business article in English which contained a fair amount of metaphorical expressions. I looked at both conventional metaphors and novel(creative metaphors. These were the metaphors with a source domain that presupposed meta-knowledge of the British English cultural environment. I also included in the research instrument a few orientational metaphors that were used in the business artcle. The findings of this study indicate concurrence with Gibbs (1999, cited in Yu zoog) that "{c]ultura/ models 'in shaping what people believe, how they act, and how they speak about the world and their own experiences' set up specific perspectives from which aspects of 'embodied experiences are viewed as particularly salient and meaningful in people's lives. ... In short, 'social and cultural constructions of experience fundamentaJ/y shape embodied metaphor."'
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    The archaeology of the Dome Gorge in the Daureb/ Brandberg, Namibia: Themes, content and context
    (University of Namibia, 2012) Gwasira, Goodman
    The Ddureb' Brandberg, Namibia's highest mountain, is one of the most weJI documented rock art regions in the world. All in a/1 almost 900sites comprising of almost 50 ooo individual images were recorded in the Ddureb. However the rock engravings' which have been found in the Dome Gorge remain relatively sparsely researched. The Dome Gorge is a unique site in the sense that paintings and engravings converge and in some cases superimpose each other. The aim of this research was to understand the entire corpus of the area through conducting empirical documentation of the site. Altogether seven different types of combinations of engravings and paintings were observed in the data. The study a/so investigated the spatial patterning of the rock engravings in the Dome Gorge and established an empirical description of the distribution and Jiguration of engravings based on quantitative analysis.
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    Community perceptions of climate change and vanability impacts in Oshana and Ohangwena Regions
    (University of Namibia, 2012) Kaundjua, Maria B.; Angula, Margaret; Angombe, Simon T.
    The links between climate change, social and economic development, health, and environmental sustainability have become a dominant and urgent global concern. Understanding community perceptions leads to successful adaptation to climate change. This paper analyses community perceptions of climate change in selected Namibian regions. The study applied the qualitative research approach using the focus group discussion method. The data collection was conducted within a Socio-economic and Gender Analysis framework. The study has revealed that the communities are aware that the climate is changing due to changes observed in the past three to four decades. However, the study concluded that the communities do not have an adaptive capacity to respond to catastrophic natural disaster events such as the recurrent floods of 2009, ww & 2011. The study recommends a programme on community awareness regarding climate variability and change and its implications. The government in collaboration with communities and other relevant stakeholders should set up a long-term adaptation strategy for Namibia.
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    An investigation into the information needs for poverty eradication at Greenwell Matongo in Katutura, Windhoek, in the context of the Millenium Development Goals (MDGs)
    (University of Namibia, 2012) Mchombu, Kingo
    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the eradication of poverty ore two concerns that are highly supported by African governments, bilateral agencies and the United Nations. However within Africa, not much research has been done on what role libraries and information services can play towards meeting the goals of the MDG programme and the eradication of poverty. The aim of this paper is to present preliminary findings from a study in Greenwell Matongo, Katutura, Windhoek, on information needs for poverty eradication in the context of MDGs. Focus group discussions were conducted with three groups consisting of young females, young males, and adults respectively. The participants described the high levels of poverty in their community, and the low levels of hygiene and sanitation. There was recognition that education for children is important to overcome poverty. Gender relations are marked by alcohol related violence and rapes. The rate of HIV/A!DS and TB infection were thought to be high but kept secret because of fear of stigma. There were serious environmental problems in the community because of the use of inflammable fuel sources such as p araffin and candles in the corrugated iron shacks. The community information centre in the settlement is used intensively by young people for educational purposes, but only marginally, by adults for photocopying and literacy purposes. Recommendations are made on how to address the identified information needs of the community and capacity building in the context of MDG and poverty eradication.