Masters Degrees (NBS)

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    Assessing the impact of online learning on student performance at the Namibia business school during COVID-19
    (University of Namibia, 2022) Nambambi, Hilma
    The aim of thisthesis was to assesses the impact of online learning on student performance at the Namibia Business School during the COVID-19 pandemic. This was in relation to students studying towards their Postgraduate Diploma, Masters and Doctor of Business Administration. Data was gathered from 3 different campuses including the Windhoek main campus, Ongwediva and Swakopmund Campuses. Data for the study was collected from a quantitative sample of registered students at the Namibia Business School at the University of Namibia. Questionnaires were administered and distributed online because of the COVID-19 regulations that were prevailing at the time of the study. The study found several challenges to be affecting students’ online journey and key among them included lack of internet access, cost of data and noisy environments. Further analysis of the findings shows that the online learning processes, benefits of online and student motivation are critical and statistically significant predictors of students’ performance in online environments. The study concluded that with several challenges in place, online learning could be problematic, and these challenges need the cooperation of higher education managers and government. It is imperative for NBS to leverage the data-driven insights obtained from this study to design adaptable and flexible learning approaches that cater to the diverse needs of its student community. By harnessing the potential of technology and tailoring educational resources to promote interactive and collaborative learning experiences, NBS can create an environment that empowers students to thrive academically, even in times of crisis
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    The nexus between financial innovations and velocity of money: Evidence from Namibia
    (University of Namibia, 2022) Uugulu, Tomas Mekondjo
    The study of the velocity for money in an economy is a central issue in central bank policy formulation. This is so because a steady demand for money function is vital for the conduct of effective monetary policy. The study investigated the relationship between financial innovations and the velocity of money in the Namibian economy. Secondary data from the World Bank and Bank of Namibia, covering the period 2000 to 2020. The study relied on the Autoregressive Distributed Lag Model technique to test the relationship. The founding objectives were named to explore whether financial innovation explained the velocity of money and secondly whether there existed a short run or a long-run relationship between the selected variables. The results indicate that financial innovations explain the velocity of money in the economy, and the Error Correction model determined that there was an existent long-run relationship between the variables. The margin of the inverse relationship was evident from the coefficient of - 1.107354, meaning that an increase by one unit change in financial innovation caused a -1.107354 decrease in the velocity of money in the economy. Hence, the study found that both in the short-run and long-run financial sector innovations are inseparably linked with the velocity of money. The model also included two control variables GDP and the opportunity cost of holding money as the theoretical foundation nominate the two variables to also affect money demand which eventually affects velocity of money. The results found that a positive relationship existed between the GDP variable and velocity of money and the magnitude effect of the relationship is shown by the coefficient. The other variable opportunity cost of holding money was found to be statistically insignificant as showed the probability and the t-statistic. From these results, a cautionary advice would be extended to the policymakers to manage this dynamic relationships better as it has a bearing on the monetary policy framework in the case of the velocity of money (money demand function) in an economy
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    The impact of micro-finance on poverty alleviation: A case study of Swakopmund youths
    (University of Namibia, 2023) Kaninas, Zelda
    This study investigated the impact of microfinance on poverty alleviation, using a sample of 100 participants drawn from 3 microfinance institutions in Swakopmund. In addition, the study employed a descriptive case study as a research design for quantitative research. The SPSS software was used to analyse the quantitative data that was collected from the field research. Income, education, consumption spending, health care, nutrition, non-land asset holdings, social empowerment and housing conditions were among the eight variables used to measure the impact of microfinance on household welfare. Furthermore, three business indicators were utilised to assess the impact of microfinance on firm growth. Sales, profits, and capital are examples of these. The impact of four microfinance variables on household welfare was also estimated in this study. The overall value of microfinance loans, the length of participation in microfinance programs, the total number of microfinance loans, and the average yearly interest rate were all factors considered in the study. It is important to note that longer participation in microfinance programs improves the likelihood of perceived improvements in income, consumption spending, and social empowerment, according to the logistic regression results. Furthermore, raising the total quantity of microfinance loans raises the chances of better-perceived health care access. Higher interest rates reduce the odds of better-perceived income, education, consumption expenditure, social empowerment, and living conditions whereas higher cumulative value of microfinance loans reduces the odds of better-perceived income, consumption expenditure, education, and health care. The study's major recommendations are aimed at policymakers, international organisations, and non-governmental organisations (NGOs). Microfinance is not an effective poverty alleviation strategy at this time, as seen by the circumstances on the ground, and alternative initiatives aimed at producing jobs for the poor are required. In terms of policy impact, the government of the Republic of Namibia ought to ensure that social assistance programs reach the needy and that public goods are of high quality until a successful poverty-alleviation program is established. Moreover, it can also foster sustainable, market-based microfinance by reducing unfair competition from governmental institutions; implementing regulatory reform; and finally strengthening the business climate
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    Investigating strategies to improve superior sustainable performance in the Namibian mining industry
    (University of Namibia, 2023) Moongo, Thomas Ehongo
    The mining industry is the primary sector anchor and the largest contributor to the gross domestic product (GDP) of the Namibian economy and it can potentially drive the country towards industrialization by adding value to its products via the implementation of the Mineral Beneficiation Strategy (MBS). Unfortunately, the mining industry is currently unsustainable because 52% of the operations have stopped production. This research is aimed at investigating strategies that may potentially improve superior sustainable performance in the Namibian mining industry. The research methodology applied, utilised the explanatory sequential mixed methods research (MMR) approach. In this case, quantitative and qualitative data were collected by using a self-administered open-ended questionnaire and a semi-structured interview guide, respectively. To improve superior sustainable performance, the data inferred that the mines should successfully execute strategic projects such as the life of mine extension, increasing production, improving efficiencies, and improving all-in sustaining cost (AISC). It was found that the major factors negatively influencing superior sustainable performance include the following: a decline in commodity prices, mine flooding due to underground water, geotechnical risks, depleted ore reserves, declined ore grade, and mineralogical changes. The strategies to improve superior sustainable performance were established by applying a SWOT/TOWS analysis model and by creating an integrated strategy map that consider several mining operation sustainability aspects. Initiatives for reducing the cost of electrical power were recommended i.e., building a nuclear power plant, green hydrogen plant and the Kudu gas power station. Further research should focus on the policy regarding tax relief for mining companies that are struggling to remain sustainable
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    An investigative study into the impact of the newly introduced procurement policy on the supply chain departments in Namibia
    (University of Namibia, 2022) Shikongo, Martha N.
    The study investigated the impact of the newly introduced procurement act on the supply chain departments in Namibia. The Public Procurement Act, 2015 (Act No. 15 of 2015) was enacted and came into effect on 01 April 2017. The act aims to increase transparency and accountability. The Namibian government uses public procurement to achieve socio-economic objectives, which are commonly referred to as horizontal policies. This practice is a widely accepted tool of public procurement and has been around for a long time and includes objectives such as poverty alleviation by reducing the unemployment rate and providing equal opportunities to groups from previously disadvantaged communities such as women and youth through economic empowerment. The mixed methods research design was used in this study. Purposive sampling was used to select employees from finance and procurement departments. The study established that 40% of the respondents were male while 60% were female. In addition, 80% of the participants indicated that the procurement act had improved the processes of selecting suppliers, while 20% of the respondents thought there was no improvement. A total of 40% of the respondents indicated that the effectiveness of the procurement act was high, and 30% indicated that it was just average. Conversely, 15% of the respondents indicated that it was low, 5% indicated that it was very low, and 5% indicated that it was very high. The study also established that the Government should invest in appropriate information and communication technology such as databases on goods and services prices to support procurement officials in their daily work and decisions. A key challenge in Namibia has been the need to define an adequate level of transparency to ensure fair and equal treatment of providers and integrity in public procurement, given that transparency in public procurement bears an immediate cost for government and bidders. The recommendations drawn from the research were that there should be promotion and enhancement of transparency regarding preferential procurement policies, determinants, and related information for the public and promotion of inclusion of new entrants in the supplier value chain
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    An assessment of the impact of public service delivery on customer satisfaction: A case study of Okahandja municipality, Namibia
    (University of Namibia, 2022) Shoongeleni, Wilhermine N
    This study sought to assess the impact of public service delivery on customer satisfaction at Okahandja Municipality in order to determine whether the residents of Okahandja are satisfied with the services being rendered or not, such as good sanitation, clean, healthy and reasonable water bills, uninterrupted or blocked sewage systems, healthy road networks, working street lights and collection of rubbish by the Municipality. This study utilised mixed methods through administering questionnaires with structured questions to the residents of Okahandja and conducting one-on-one interviews with employees of the Okahandja Municipality. Fifty-five participants were selected for inclusion in the study of which 51 were customers, and 4 were employees of the Municipality. Quantitative data was analysed through frequency tables, descriptive statistics, correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 27. Qualitative data was analysed using thematic analysis in which occurring themes and patterns in information gathered were identified. Findings revealed that the respondents mainly disagreed with the quality-of-service delivery at the Okahandja Municipality, in terms of water supply, electricity supply and fares and taxes charged, as well as their overall satisfaction. The results also revealed that financial constraints, community participation, inadequate employee capacity and poor planning are some of the challenges faced by the municipality in delivering quality public service. The study recommends that the Okahandja Municipality look into practicing and implementing the five dimensions of quality service in its organisation as well as to ii try to utilise the Gap Analysis Theory yearly, in order to develop the organisation and promote employee training
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    Investigating effects of non-technical limitations on customer online shopping behaviour in the Namibian retail sector
    (University of Namibia, 2023) Zhuang, Yong Sheng
    Internet began as a means of spreading information, but it has now evolved into a vital tool in a variety of disciplines. Online retailing has become an alternative shopping channel in recent years. Online shopping has facilitated globalization by allowing customers to purchase goods from anywhere on the globe. Online transactions are widely accepted but a few countries still lag behind and Namibia is one of them. E commerce is in a nascent stage in Namibia and many online shopping platforms that were launched were short-lived due to lack of customers (Crédit du Nord Group, 2021). In the face of the drastic changes that online shopping has brought to today's world, how to adapt to new demands and satisfy increasingly savvy and discerning consumers is a problem facing retail in Namibia. This study therefore sought to explore non technical limitations contributing to Namibian consumers' reluctance to use online shopping. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of non technical limitations to customers’ online shopping behaviour in the Namibian retail sector. Following Creswell (2014) the study adopted a mixed research approach to facilitate inquiry involving collecting both quantitative and qualitative data and using distinct designs that may involve philosophical assumptions and theoretical frameworks. Face-to-face interviews were used in the study to collect qualitative data. From the results, the research concludes that the most influential and attractive factor is the lack of professional and technical personnel. Security and Trust are also very important, particularly the payment security concerns are very important while shopping online. Based on the study results risks and security should be given adequate attention, since they are a primary reason why customers are hesitant to use e commerce in general. Online shopping in Namibia is still in its early stages, and consumer legal protection is still limited. The study recommends that online retailers should first consider overcoming mistrust issues such as payments security then create a user-friendly and attractive interface for their websites so that customers can quickly understand and modify them. A business strategies constructed through the research enables Namibians and Namibian retail to overcome non-technical limitations to customers’ online shopping behaviour in the Namibian retail sector
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    An investigation of corporate governance practices at the public sector employee medical aid scheme in Khomas region, Namibia
    (University of Namibia, 2022) Van Wyk, Siobhan Felicity
    The study will create a progressive social impact in the management of firms by emphasizing the significance of corporate governance practices on PSEMAS performance. The findings and recommendations of this study could assist the managers in securing prudent utilization of organizational resources by comprehending the variables that influence the PSEMAS' long-term performances. Regulatory authorities could also benefit from the research findings by identifying the important mechanism of corporate governance that stimulate organizational effectiveness and Namibia’s economic growth. Also, the study will contribute to the existing literature by examining the relationship between the variables under study. Furthermore, the thesis study aimed to have raised awareness of corporate governance practices at PSEMAS and their impact on the national resources. It intends to create awareness of the challenges PSEMAS is facing. The study makes a substantial contribution to tackling the long-standing issue of poor governance at the Public Service Employee Medical Aid Scheme, which is regarded to be a result of Namibia's inadequate governance. Finally, this study has scholarly significance because it adds to the corpus of knowledge on corporate governance. 8 The research could contribute to the knowledge and thorough understanding of corporate governance in the public sector. The study sheds light on and broadens the development and limitations that PSEMAS faces in promoting good corporate governance
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    Assessing the impact of corporate governance on the performance of the Namibia Institute of Pathology
    (University of Namibia, 2023) Bauleth, Mirjam Zucky
    The study investigated the impact of corporate governance on the Namibia Institute of Pathology’s performance. The research was descriptive in nature, taking a mixed methods approach, consisting of qualitative and quantitative approaches. Primary data was gathered using both structured and non-structured questionnaires distributed to the persons who make up the governance of Namibia Institute of Pathology (NIP), namely: members of the board of directors and the Chief Executive Officer of NIP. Secondary data was acquired from NIP's annual reports covering a period of 5 years (2017-2021). Seven out of eight respondents completed the questionnaire, which is 87.5% of the sample. Quantitative information was displayed as percentages, frequency distributions, means, and standard deviations based on the total replies. Whereas quantitative data was analysed using both correlation and regression. The findings of this study established that larger board sizes are prone to conflicts, making it difficult to reach a consensus. Conversely, a larger board is most likely to possess variable skills and experience to make informed decisions. The study established that board members are appointed by all stakeholders with no direct political influence. Moreover, it was revealed that NIP board members were comprised only of non executive members. With regards to board committees, it was found that the NIP board operates primarily through committees. However, it was noted that there is no committee for auditing the board of the NIP. The study also establishes that board meetings had a high turnout and that all board members possess the necessary qualifications. Multiple regression analysis revealed that all components of corporate governance had no significant effect on NIP's performance. Finally, the study recommends that the shareholders form an independent audit committee to audit the board committees for accountability
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    Investigating the impact of the economic recession on households’ buying behaviour at Uis village between 2016 and 2020
    (University of Namibia, 2022) Garises, Marianne Benita
    After two consecutive quarters of a negative growth rate in Namibia’s Gross Domestic Products (GDP), Namibia was technically in a recession by the end of the second quarter of 2016. This study sought to investigate the impact of the economic recession on households buying behaviour at Uis Village between 2016 and 2020. The study adopted an explanatory sequential mixed methods research design. Simple random sampling and convenience sampling techniques were used to select the samples of the study from a population of 75 households. A close-ended questionnaire, and an interview schedule was used for data collection. The data received was analyzed using the SPSS software, Version 26, micro-soft excel and Terreblanche five stage process. The study found that, households at Uis village were negatively impacted by economic recession that occurred between 2016 to2020 to a great extent. The study also established that the impact of the change in disposable income during the economic recession on households buying behaviour at Uis Village was significant. However, when it came to brand preference, the study established that, households at Uis village did not place much importance to brand preference, and therefore it was revealed that their brand preference in relation to their buying behaviour was mostly not impacted upon much during the economic recession
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    An investigation into factors affecting the financial sustainability of the Game Products Trust Fund of Namibia
    (University of Namibia, 2023) Ndove, Martha
    This study investigated the factors affecting the financial sustainability of the Game Product Trust Fund (GPTF). The exploratory study adopted a qualitative research approach. Data was collected from five participants who made up the population of the study. Data was collected through face-to-face interviews and analysed through thematic analysis. The five participants were the GPTF fund manager and four members of the board of directors. The study found that financial sustainability is important to the GPTF. Also, while the fund has managed to remain financially sound, there are factors such as overreliance on trophy hunting for revenue, inadequate internal controls, and economic challenges that affect its financial sustainability. The study recommends diversifying revenue streams, strengthening internal financial control measures, and reviewing expenditures to reduce costs as measures for enhancing financial sustainability. The study was limited in scope and did not include other stakeholders of the GPTF. Hence, there is an opportunity for further research incorporating the perspectives of the GPTF stakeholders as well as implementing quantitative or mixed methods to produce generalizable results
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    The role of succession planning in promoting business continuity: A study of family-owned enterprises in Namibia
    (University of Namibia, 2023) Amon, Lovisa Ingavamwena
    Family-owned businesses are not exempt from the importance placed on succession planning in the business world. The study's purpose was to examine the role succession planning plays in ensuring the survival of family-owned businesses. This qualitative research study, had ten (10) family-owned business owners serving as the sample size. Thematic analysis, which involves identifying themes by spotting similarities in meaning across data, was used to study the data. The findings showed that most participants had a sufficient understanding of succession planning and itsimportance to family-owned firms. It was also discovered that they had a sufficient understanding of what it meant to run a family-owned business, particularly when it came to the purpose of passing it down to the next generation or instances in which it had previously been given to a family member to run and manage. Additionally, it was determined that, in FOBs, succession planning increases competitiveness, which is a trait that results from such planning. The study recommends that business owners put the understanding and knowledge they have about succession planning into practice by having a succession plan in place. Further study across all regions of Namibia is recommended to determine the overall view of the country at large
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    Investigating the effects of employees’ motivation on performance at women and law in Southern Africa - Eswatini
    (University of Namibia, 2023) Dlamini, Lomthantazo
    The major aim of the study was to investigate relationship between employee motivation and job performance. A mixed methods research design was adopted where both qualitative and quantitative data was collected and analysed. The population of the study was 360 employees consisting of 350 temporary community workers and 10 full time employees. Simple random sampling was used to choose a sample of 50 participants. Quantitative data collection was collected through a 5-point Likert scale and qualitative data by interviews. Furthermore, all the motivation and performance constructs were tested for reliability using Cronbach Alpha coefficient, which was above 0.7 for all of them. Normality was tested through the Shapiro-Wilk test. Presentation and analysis of the data was through themes, frequency distribution tables, clustered graphs, descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation. The findings of the study were that extrinsic factors did not affect the level of motivation despite their absence. Furthermore, intrinsic factors had an impact on the level of motivation. Tests for correlation between integrated motivation constructs of intrinsic and extrinsic factors revealed that there was a positive, statistically insignificant correlation which can be accounted to chance. The study concluded that most of NGO employees are motivated by intrinsic personal factors such as recognition, a sense of achievement and acknowledgements. Lack of extrinsic factors led to dissatisfaction and an insignificant positive correlation was found. It was recommended that non-monetary rewards and recognition ceremonies be increased to motivate employees accordingly
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    An analysis of the effects of COVID-19 on the banking sector in Windhoek, Namibia
    (University of Namibia, 2023) Kazadi, Blaise Kayembe
    The COVID-19 pandemic significantly affected the global economy, causing major disruptions as different countries entered lockdowns to slow the spread of the virus. These disruptions led to various macroeconomic effects, which in turn directly impacted banking institutions around the globe. The purpose of this research was to analyse the effects of the Coronavirus (COVID-19) on the banking sector in Windhoek, Namibia. To achieve the objectives of this study, a qualitative research approach was utilised whereby, an exploratory research design was adopted. The researcher used interviews and documents review as instruments to gather data and employed conceptual and relational content analysis to analyse the data and used ATLAS.ti 22 to aid the data analysis process. The results have shown that the pandemic came with a combination of negative and positive effects in general. The negative effects have represented challenges faced by the banking sector, whereas the positive effects represent opportunities that open to the banking sector further confirming the claims from different authors who conducted studies in the USA or European countries for instance. The study has been however contradictory with claims from other authors, in terms of cyber-security, as it was not found as a challenge in Namibia. The researcher as recommended that commercial banks, maintain different measures adopted during the pandemic such as the combination of working from the office and working from home, invest more in digital platforms, and further improve their digital platforms where they were certainly limited and make it even more efficient. For policy makers, mainly the Bank of Namibia, the researcher did not have a particular recommendation to give has the bank was very effective in taking significant measures and did everything on time to avoid difficulties.
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    The impact of leadership development on employees’ performance: A case study of the Okahao Town Council, Namibia
    (University of Namibia, 2023) Shipopyeni, Salomo S.
    The study examined the impact of leadership development on employee performance at the Okahao Town Council in the Omusati Region, Namibia. The impact of leadership development on employee performance cannot be overemphasised. The need for adequate coaching, training and development, empowerment, participation and delegation are fundamental at promoting efficient and excellent employee performance. Though studies on the role of leadership development on employee performance has been well-research in other countries, less can be said of Namibia. Therefore, this study‟s imperative was to examine the relationship between leadership development and employee performance. This study considered five factors of leadership development, i.e., coaching, training and development, empowerment, participation and delegation. The data was collected through questionnaires and focused on lower-and-middle-level employees. Interviews were conducted with departmental managers and the Chief Executive Officer with questions tailored towards determining, the relationship between empowerment and participation in decision-making and employee performance, the relationship between authorisation and employee performance, the relationship between education and development and employee performance among others. The study sought to confirm if the five variables collectively as leadership development factors prove a synergistic effect and increase the overall employee performance. An extreme case sampling method was used to select the Okahao Town Council (OTC) among other councils in the Omusati Region and in Namibia at a large. The study employed mixed methods research to gather and analyse quantitative and then qualitative data in two consecutive phases. Triangulation was used to integrate the two phases, and that enabled the interpretation of the combined findings. Quantitative data was analysed using SPSS 28 using Cronbach‟s Alpha coefficient of leadership development and employee performance to quantify the strengths and correlation. The qualitative data was analysed and the presented as tables and graphs. Regression vi | P a g e analysis was used to test the impact of leadership development on employee‟s performance at the OTC. Obtained results after analysing statistical data demonstrate that there is a positive and significant relationship among leadership development and its dimensions. Authorisation and education and development among leadership development dimensions are strong correlators of employees' performance. Also, regression results analysis shows variables of authorisation, education and development and empowerment among predictor variables (leadership development dimensions) based on the highest significant level and coaching and participation in decision-making are not inserted in analysis. Authorisation, education and development and empowerment variables explain employees' performance score significantly. These variables are important in predicting employees' performance. Therefore, it is concluded that authorisation, education and development and empowerment have the highest impact on employees' performance, respectively
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    An assessment of the effectiveness of performance based reward systems on employee performance at the Motor Vehicle Accident Fund in Namibia
    (University of Namibia, 2023) Nashivela, Salome Hanyemweshipange
    Employees are rightly regarded as the most valuable assets in an organisation. In businesses, compensation is a critical issue that administrators, particularly human resource managers, must properly manage. The MVA Fund introduced the rewards and recognition policy and Performance Management Policy in 2015 and 2016 respectively. A mixed methods approach consisting of both interpretivist, and positivist approaches was imperative for this study as it also allowed the researcher to gain a deeper understating of the research problem. During the quantitative phase of this study, a survey in this research included a sample selected from managerial and non-managerial employees at the MVA Fund Headquarters in Windhoek by use of questionnaires in order to determine their perceptions on the effectiveness of performance-based reward systems on their performance. The qualitative made use of a case study by means of interviews. Descriptive data analysis was performed, to analyse the demographics of respondents who showed a youthful population, with 71 percent females and 79 percent being general employees. 51 percent worked for 6 to years and 32 percent possessed master’s degrees. Analysis of quantitative and qualitative results under literature control indicate that extrinsic rewards comprising of Salary increase, Bonuses, Commission, Supervision, Employee motivation, Employee commitment and Employee satisfaction have a positive effect on employee performance. The correlation coefficient is at r= 0.329, indicating a positive but weak correlation between Employee performance and Supervision of employees. Correlation between Employee performance and intrinsic rewards are all significant with P values less than 0.05, for all the seven variables the two tailed Significant value is p= 0.0000, meaning that we reject H0, concluding that there is a significant relationship between intrinsic rewards and employee performance. Results from focus group interviews also confirmed that there is a positive and strong relationship between performance-based rewards and employee performance. The study recommends that employee participatory decision making should be encouraged, also ii that there should be an improvement in leadership behavior and the work environment to keep career development
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    An assessment of factors affecting the accessibility of e-commerce in the retail industry: Windhoek, Namibia
    (University of Namibia, 2022) Kalambi, Ruusa Ndinelago
    E-commerce has created a platform where business transactions are conducted over the internet. E-commerce is used to improve efficiency and productivity in many areas of business, therefore, has received significant attention in many countries. However, its adoption has not been as anticipated in some countries. This study therefore sought to assess the accessibility of e-commerce in Windhoek’s retail industry. The objectives of the study included: to determine the e-commerce models adopted for use in the Namibian retail industry; to understand the present status and trends in accessibility of e-commerce platforms used by Windhoek-based online retail shops; to establish factors that enhance the adoption of e-commerce and Identify factors that hinder the adoption of e-commerce. In terms of methodology, this study adopted a quantitative method and a descriptive cross-sectional research design. The quantitative method was used because it was easier to analyse numeric data from the questionnaires and the study was aiming to establish the relationship between e-commerce models and performance of online channels. A sample size of 63 respondents was selected through non probability consecutive sampling while a sample of 100 customers was selected through systematic random sampling. The data was analysed by use of SPSS software. Descriptive statistics, specifically frequencies, cross tabulation and percentages were used to describe the characteristics of the data which was presented in tables and charts. The findings indicate that although e-commerce was accepted as a mode of shopping in other parts of the world, only a small percentage of it has been adopted in Namibia. Features and services connected to e-commerce significantly influenced consumers’ decisions to purchase online. Trust is established as a critical factor in the adoption of e-commerce due to the high level of uncertainty and risk involved in virtual transactions. This study recommends that retail owners attempt to build trust with their customers by enhancing privacy and securing consumers’ information. Further, that the private sector should help the government and development agencies within Namibia to understand and address the priority challenges faced when it comes to the adoption of e-commerce
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    An investigation into the effect of non-performing loans on the profitability of commercial banks in Namibia
    (University of Namibia, 2023) Mwaetako, Eliphas Hadibo
    This study investigates the effect of non-performing loans on the profitability of major commercial banks in Namibia for the period 2015 to 2020. In order to achieve this objective, pooled annual data for six commercial banks obtained from the banks’ financial statements was used to estimate panel regression models, fixed and random effects models. The results indicate that bank size and loan to assets ratio explains about 14% and 10% of the variation in a bank’s profitability as measured by return on assets. The null hypothesis of no significant relationship between NPL and ROA was not rejected, meaning that non-performing loans have no effect on the profitability of commercial banks in Namibia. This implies that there is a need for commercial banks to transform more deposits into loans in order for them to increase interest-bearing assets. The study findings stress the need for commercial banks to transform more deposits into loans in order to increase interest-bearing assets. The positive effect of bank size on profitability suggests possible scale efficiency as a result of the expansion in bank size. The study further recommends that, banks must continue to closely monitor inflation to stabilise the economy. Commercial banks must show resilience to learn from recent experiences, demonstrate courage to tackle challenges and exploit opportunities embedded in tribulations experienced. The study further recommended that, the banks should further be committed to deliver monetary, price and financial stability
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    An investigation into housing delivery for low-income households of Tobias Hainyeko constituency
    (University of Namibia, 2023) Mutumbulwa, David
    This study sought to investigate the causes of delays in housing delivery amongst low income households who are residents of the informal settlements of Tobias Hainyeko Constituency, Windhoek, Namibia. It also aimed to analyse the underlying challenges faced by low-income households when accessing formal housing units and decent shel ter. The study used mixed methods of a concurrent design. Interview guides, document reviews and observations were used to collect qualitative data, while structured ques tionnaires were used to collect quantitative data in a survey. The study conducted hy potheses tests using regression analysis to determine the relationship between housing delivery, a dependent variable and independent variables represented by the provision of serviced land as well as basic services such as refuse removal services provided to informal settlements of Tobias Hainyeko Constituency. Hypotheses test results showed a positive relationship between the provision of affordable housing and refuse removal services; and a strong positive-perfect relationship between provision of affordable housing and supply of serviced land to households. The study further revealed that provision of serviced land and the provision of refuse removal services are significantly associated with the provision of affordable housing. The study recommends a targeted intervention through adequate Government funding for upgrading of informal settle ments in Tobias Hainyeko Constituency to accelerate accessibility and delivery of ser viced land, also, basic services and formal housing units amongst low-income house holds. Furthermore, the study proposes a review of current policies and strategies in order to align them with addressing current housing challenges. Lastly, the study rec ommends future research to improve housing approaches and funding models to accel erate the delivery of decent housing units, basic services and infrastructure amongst households residing in other informal settlements and townships in Namibia
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    Analysing the impact of cross-listing on firm value for Johannesburg stock exchange companies listed on the Namibia stock exchange
    (University of Namibia, 2021) Mbangula, Konrad Ndapopi
    When companies are looking to raise funds for growth and increasing firm value, equity and debt are the only options at their disposal. In raising equity, companies can sell their stock to the public, within their domestic market or through cross-listing on another stock exchange which may be domestic or foreign. Accordingly, research on the impact of cross-listing on liquidity and firm value in the African context, has been growing. However, in Namibia there has been no study that comparatively assessed the impact of cross-listing on firm values of both cross-listed and locally listed stocks. Therefore, this study analysed the asset value, liquidity, and profitability of locally listed and cross listed assets on the Namibia Stock Exchange (NSX). The study used secondary data from publicly available financial indicators from 32 NSX listed companies in the period 2019 to 2021. The study found that the average 1isting time on for stocks on the NSX was 15.78 years. The findings also showed that 86.5% of the stocks were listed on the NSX Main board, of which 45.9% were cross listed and 40.5% were locally listed. The findings indicated that the cross listed stocks on the Capital Development Board (DevX) had the lowest Market Capitalisation averaging N$4 l 4 million. The average asset values of cross-listed firms were at least 4.5 times the value of those locally listed. The study also found statistically significant differences between locally listed and cross-listed assets, with respect to financial performance indicators like Asset value, Market capitalisation, 3-Year Beta and liquidity. While there were no significant associations with respect to Return on Shareholder Funds. The study concluded that cross-listing in the Namibian context can be grouped into two types, one which is inclined inwards and another one outward. The inward cross-listing is recommended for those companies seeking to raise local funds through the NSX, while the outward cross-listing is recommended for local firms looking to raise capital or increase their stock value by listing on the JSE Africa Development board